Thursday, May 13, 2010 | By: Rudi Butt

Notable Doctors From The First 100 Years - Part II






Continued from Notable Doctors From The Frist 100 Years, where entries of doctors from 1841 to 1889 are posted.

Updated (partial) on April 18, 2013

1900s

The First of the Bachelors


The first degree congregation of the University of Hong Kong took place on December 14, 1916. Out of 23 graduates; 8 were medical students. They were: Chau Wai-cheung 周懷璋, C.E. Lim 林宗揚, Edward Cheah Tiang-eam* [1], Cheong Chee-hai* 鍾志海, Wong Hing-chuen, Teoh Cheng-toe* [2], Teh Lean-swee* [3], Lim Soon-kian* possibly 林順建
[1] Edward Cheah Tiang-eam – possibly 謝天炎; practiced in Foochow and Penang, moved to Johor Bahru in the mid 1920s; married Emily Brockett, third daughter of Thomas Brockett, a successful English tea merchant based in Foochow and his Chinese wife - Mary Lo Dai, nee Nuang; close friend of Abdul Rahman bin Yassin whose son, Ismail Abdul Rahman, became the second Prime Minister of Malaysia (1970-1973); the two youngest Cheah daughters - Eileen and Joyce - married two of the Kuok brothers, Philip and Robert, respectively; keen golfer, played quite often with Sultan ibrahim, helped found the Singapore Golf Club as well as the International Club in Johore Bahru.

[2] Teoh Cheng-toe - attended the Straits & F.M.S. (Federated Malay States) Medical School before enrolling into UKU; founding member of Penang Medical Practitioners' Society (1932).

[3] Teh Lean-swee - possibly 鄭年瑞 or 鄭聯瑞; attended the Straits & F.M.S. (Federated Malay States) Medical School before enrolling into UKU; there was a Jalan (Road) Teh Lean Swee in Ipoh, which is now known as Persiaran Medan Ipoh and is located next to Jalan Wu Lean Teh – named after the famous Wu Lean Teh, M.D.; wouldn’t be very far off to assume that Teh Lean-swee might have come from Ipoh or Penang and had become a famous doctor.

* possibly Malayan of Chinese descent

Chaun Moon-Hung 周夢熊 (1901**)
The first Chinese Dentist, University trained
Qualifications: D.D.S., University of Pennsylvania (1899)

The first Chinese student and the first Chinese graduate of Penn; admitted as the first Chinese dentist in Hong Kong (1901) by his Westerner peers --- most of them were alumni from Penn (There were no formal qualification requirements for dentist before 1914. The first Dentistry Ordinance was enacted on June 5, 1914.)

** The year in which the subject doctor arrived in Hong Kong or his/her name started appearing in Hong Kong records.

William Hunter (1901)
The first Government Bacteriologist
Qualifications:

b. May 25, 1875 Banffshire, Scotland – d.1909 Hong Kong; son of Rev. William H. Hunter; M.B., C.M., University of Aberdeen (1897, most distinguished Medical Graduate); F.R.I.P.H., London University; member of the British Medical Association; member of the Neurological and Physiological Societies of Great Britain; University of Leipzig, University of Berlin, Germany; Laboratory Assistant, Pathological Department, Aberdeen University (1897) ; Clinical Assistant National Hospital for Paralyzed and Epileptic, London (1899-1901); Laboratory Assistant, Neuropathslogical Laboratory, King's College, London, (1900); Assistant Bacteriologist, London Hospital, (1900-1901) ; Director of Pathological Institute, London Hospital, (1901); Government Bacteriologist, Director of Bacteriological Institute, and Medical Officer in charge of the Government Public Mortuary (1901-1909); Lecturer in Pathology and Bacteriology, School of Medicine for Chinese; member of Hong Kong Club; died suddenly on June 9, 1909 at the age of 34, he was buried at the Hong Kong Cemetery in Happy Valley

Ho Ko-tsun 何高俊 (1901)
Qualifications:

b.1878; Christian; graduate of queen's college; L.M.S.C.C., HKCMC (1901), receipent of Belilios award; acting house surgeon, Tung Wah Hospital (1901-1902); the first laboratory assistant to the Government Bacteriologist (1902-1903), working under Hong Kong’s first Government Bacteriologist, William Hunter; resident surgeon, Nethersole and Ho Miu Ling Hospitals (1903-1906); Medical Officer, Chinese Public Dispensary, East Distrcit (located in Wanchai); went to private practice; lecturer, osteology and surgery, HKCMC; inaugural Chairman, Yeung Wo Nursing Home, the forerunner of Hong Kong Sanitarium (1922); active member (1910), Guangdong Medical Gongjinhui 廣東醫學共進會, the medical branch of a republican movement group founded in Tokyo in 1905; Deputy Director of Public Health, Guangzhou (1911); president, Tai Yuk School; founding member, Hong Kong Chinese Swimming Association 香港華人游泳會 (1910); publications: "A Treatise on First Aid to the Wounded", "Simple Remedies in varous Emergencies", "Reasons why Guangdong Government Banned Medical Services", China Medical Journal (March 1913), all three in Chinese; father of Ho Chung Chung, Ph.D. 何中中, founder and principal of True Light Middle School of Hong Kong 香港真光中學 (1946)

Wilfred William Pearse (1901)
Qualifications: M.B., C.M. 1893; D.P.H., Dm. 1894; M.D. 1906, University of Aberdeen

(Updated on November 19, 2012) M.B., C.M., D.P.H., Dm.; M.D. (1906), University of Aberdeen, thesis: “A Contribution to the Study of Plague”; arriving in Hong Kong (1901); acting Medical Officer of Health, Sanitary Superintendent and Superintendent of Statistics (1903); listed as Assistant Medical Officer of Health (1908); Lecturer in Chemistry and Physics (1903-1905), Public Health (1906-1912), Physiology (1901-1903), HKCMC; transferred from HKCMC to Faculty of Medicine, HKU (1912), Lecturer in Public Health (1912-1921); member of the Hong Kong Club.

References:
The Hong Kong Government Gazette, March 6, 1908, Appointment #132.

Members of the inaugural Board of Directors of Yeung Wo Nursing Home posted for this 1922 photo. I was unable to tag people in this photo, but beleive the following doctors were among them: Ho Ko-tsun 何高俊 (Chairman), Wan Man-kai 尹文楷, Kwan Sum-yin 關心焉, B.C. Wong 黃菖霖, Jeu Hawk 趙學, Ma Luk 馬祿臣 and Wu Tin-pao 吳天保

Oswald Marriott (1902)
Qualifications:

b. December 30, 1874 London; M.B., B.S., M.D., University of London; L.R.C.P., M.R.C.S. (1900), London; Assistant, and later House Surgeon, Guy’s Hospital, London; House Physician, Dreadnought Seaman's Hospital, Greenwich (1900); came to Hong Kong and started a private practice (1902); Lecturer in Medical Jurisprudence (1887-1906), Materia Medica and Therapeutics (1904-1912), HKCMC; one of the nine lecturers transferred from HKCMC to the Faculty of Medicine, HKU (1912); member of the University Senate, HKU (1912); member of Hong Kong Club.

Bertram Leeds Thomas Barnett (1902)
Qualifications: B.A., M.B., Cambridge University; M.R.C.S; L.R.C.P.; D.H.P

(Updated on November 2012) Barnett (b.1875 – d. April 18, 1915, Farmham, Surrey, Sussex) came to Hong Kong in around 1902. He was appointed Assistant Medical Officer of Health, e.dt. April 1902, and was elected Secretary of the Board of Examiners established in 1903 by the Hong Kong Council of the Sanitary Institute; the Board was to establish an examination mechanism for sanitary officers in Hong Kong.

He was admitted to practice as a solicitor in U.K. in November 1909, and was listed as a Captain of the  2nd County of London Army Service Corps in 1909. There were, however, other records that showed that he was appointed temporary captain of the Royal Army Service Corps, e.dt. November 14, 1914 and again e.dt. January 18, 1915. He was the Medical Officer of Health for the Isle of Ely (Cambridgeshire) most probably in the 1910s. He was killed  accidentally (how unspecified) on April 18, 1915; and was buried at the Aldershot Military Cemetary, Hampshire.

Barnett was born to Thomas and Sarah Barnett, of Holm Leas, Worthing, Sussex.

References:
- flickr.com / red-eye [internet]
- Geni.com [internet].
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, September 25, 1903, Notice #628;
- The London Gazette, November 17, 1914; January 29, 1915
- Record of Service of Solicitors and Articled Clerks with His Majesty's Forces, 1914-1919, London: 1920.
- Roll of Honor / Cambridgeshire / Ely – WWI [internet].
- Supplement to the Journal of the Sanitary Institute, Vol. #XXV, April 1904, London: The Sanitary Institute, 1904.

Frederick Theobald Keyt (1902)
Qualifications:

b. February 25, 1866 Jaffna, Ceylon; son of Frederick Theobald Keyt (Sr.) (b. January 20, 1842, Colombo – d. December 19, 1903; L.M.S., Calcutta (1863); M.D., C.M. (1881) University of Aberdeen; Colonial Surgeon, Civil Medical Department, Ceylon) and Henrietta Elizabeth Kriekenbeek; M.B., C.M. (1888), M.D. (Honors), D.P.H. (1902), University of Aberdeen; Assistant Colonial Surgeon and District Commissioner, British Honduras (1892-1902); came to Hong Kong (1902); second Port Health Officer of the Port; Lecturer in Practice of Medicine (1905-1912), HKCMC, one of the nine lecturers transferred from HKCMC to the Faculty of Medicine, HKU (1912); member of Hong Kong Club, Cricket Club and Corinthian Yacht Club.
The 3/15/2012 revision included information provided by Lindy Moore of North Wales, UK. Thank you, Lindy.
Jeu Hawk 趙學 (1902)
Qualifications:

b. 1866 Sunwui (Xinhui), Guangdong - d. October 27, 1931 Hong Kong; went to San Francisco with uncle (October 1882) at the age of sixteen decades after the Gold Rush prospecting; went to St. Louis after a few non-productive months in SFO and was sent to Sunday School to learn the English language, for free; converted to Christianity; entered Drake University at Des Moines, Iowa (1888), education probably paid by the congregation; graduated with a degree in Theology from DU (1892); led a mission established among the Chinese immigrants in Portland, Oregon initiated by Pastor David Wetzell and opened by the Christian Woman's Board of Missions (1892); entered Portland Medical College (1896) (college no longer exists); M.D., Portland Medical College (1900); entered the United Christian Missionary Society (Jeu was referred in several sources as a pastor, but I was unable to find any information that shows he was ever ordained); said to have returned to China in October 1900 (but uncertain when he arrived Hong Kong) with wife (name unknown, married in 1893) and Pastor Louie Hugh and his wife Grace of the United Christian Missionary Society; Resident Surgeon, and later succeeded Chung Boon-chor as the second Medical Superintendent, Tung Wah Hospital (1902-1910); started a private practice (1910); together with an Australian missionary, established Shamshuipo Church of Christ 深水埗基督會 (April 1926), the church still exists today under the name of Hong Kong Chinese Church of Christ 香港華人基督會; Member of the inaugural directors of the board of Yeung Wo Nursing Home (1922); President, Hong Kong Chinese Medical Association (1923/24)
Western medicine was introduced to the Tung Wah Hospital in the late 1890s and patients had a choice between Chinese medicine and Western medicine. At the time when Jeu managed the hospital as its medical superintendent, Western medicine had become quite acceptable amongst the Chinese patients. The record in 1907 shows that out of 3,200 in-patients, 1,815 opted for Western medicine and 1,385 for Chinese.
Harold Macfarlane (1903)
Qualifications: M.B., B.S., University of Edinburgh; L.R.C.P.,  London; L.R.C.S., Edinburgh; D.P.H., Oxford University
Publications: The Stegomyia Survey in Hong Kong, Bulletin of Entomological Research, Vol. #6, Issue 1, February 1915.

(Updated on November 26, 2012) MacFarlane (b. July 15, 1876 -  d. February 7, 1919, Hong Kong) arrived in Hong Kong in September 1903 and was appointed the Assistant Medical Officer of Health, e.dt. September 25, 1903. In April 1910 (or on April 30, 1909), he was transferred to the Bacteriological Institute, where he would work until 1918. While as the government bacteriologist, he took charge of a government  investigation of Stegomyia mosquitoes, the findings was later published. He also made study, collaborating with Adam Gibson, M.R.C.V.S., the Colonial Veterinary Surgeon, on flies in Hong Kong. He taught Chemistry and Physics at HKCMC from 1905 to 1907, and Chemistry from 1907 to 1909. He was one of the 9 HKCMC teaching staff transferred to HKU when it became established in 1912. MacFarlane was also a member of the HKU Senate (1912). He was appointed an acting Principal Civil Medical Officer during the absence on leave of John Taylor Connell Johnson, e.dt. January 24, 1919. MacFarlane died suddenly in February 1919 an was succeeded by H.B. Parker, who was a medical officer of the Royal Navy. He gave an address in Kowloon and was a member of the Hong Kong Club in 1906.

MacFarlane was the son of William Alexander MacFarlane, M.D. He married Laura Gertrude Massy, daughter of the Rev. Xavier Peel Massy, who was the Rector of Colinton, on August 5, 1903. She remarried Philip Peveril John Wodehouse on October 6, 1920. She died on February 2, 1959.

References:
- Dafydd Emrys Evans (1987) Constancy of Purpose, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, September 25, 1903, Notice #629; October 15, 1909, Appointment #646; January 24, 1919, Appointment #42.
- Hong Kong Museum of Medical Sciences Society, Plague, SARS, and the Story of Medicine in Hong Kong, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2006.
- Lucas, Edward Verrall, Who's Who in the Far East, 1906-7, Hong Kong: 1907.
- The Peerage [internet].

Wilfred Vincent Miller Koch (1903)
Qualifications: M.B., C.M., 1884; M.D., 1895, University of Edinburgh

(Updated on November 18, 2012) b. October 29, 1862 Jaffna, Ceylon - d. August 28, 1939; son of Edwin Lawson Koch, M.D. (b.1838 Jaffna, Ceylon – d. 1877, age 39); educated at St. Thomas' College, Celon before moving to the U.K. for education; M.B., C.M. (1884), M.D. (1895, with highest honors and gold medical); University of Edinburgh; medical officers in various hospitals in London and Sheffield (1884-1888); entered Colonial Medical Services (1889), held various appointments in Trinidad (1889-1903); Army Major in command of the Trinidad Artillery; Medical Officer, Medical Department (1903-1917); Superintendent, Government Civil Hospital (1914-1917); Member of the Legislative Council (1926) and the Sanitary Board (1920-1925); Justice of the Peace; Vice President (1907-1908), British Medical Association Hong Kong and China Branch; district surgeon, St. John Ambulance Overseas Brigade; Lecturer in Surgery (1905-1912), HKCMC; Lecturer in Surgery (1912-1917), HKU; member of the University Senate, HKU (1912); member of Hong Kong Club; publication: “A research into the etiology of beri-beri, together with a report on an outbreak in the Po-Leung-Ku”, by William Hunter and Wilfred V. M. Koch (1906); Three different names came up in various sources as the wife of Koch: Ida Nathan, Ellen Elliott Drake Briscoe and Elsie M. Thompson, but without the years of marriage. Koch was also referred as a professor in several sources without specifying the university and faculty
A descendent of Godfried Koch of Brandenburg, Prussia who went to India in the ship "Rosenberg" in 1755 and later moved to Jaffna, Koch Sr. was a much loved and respected doctor in Ceylon as well as the second principle of the Colombo Medical School. So much so that when he suddenly died at the age of 39, the grateful public of Ceylon offered subscriptions to pay for W.V.M. Koch’s medical education in Britain. What I fail to find is any information that mentions Koch, the son, had worked in Ceylon to repay the society that he owed his medcial career
References:
The Hong Kong Government Gazette, February 23, 1923, Appointment #86.

Alice Deborah Sibree (1904)
The first woman doctor
Qualifications: L.R.C.P.; M.R.C.S.

(Updated on November 15, 2012) b.1876 Antananrivo, Madagascar – d.1928 Hong Kong; graduate of the London School of Medicine for Women; worked for the London Missionary Society; in 1904 engaged by the Alice Memorial Maternity Hospital 雅麗氏紀念產科醫院 (AMMH), Hong Kong’s first maternity hospital (opened on June 7, 1904) and became the first woman medical doctor in Hong Kong. More reading on Sibree from the post: The First Ladies. The photo on the left is a wedding portrait of Alice Sibree and C.C. Hicking, Manager of Taikoo Sugar. They married in ca.1910 in Hong Kong.

She was appointed on February 26, 1919, a member of the Medical Board, for the term of three years, replaced Daisy Annabela Murdoch Gale who had resigned,

References:
The Hong Kong Government Gazette, February 28, 1919, Appointment #93

William Brownlow Ashe Moore (1905)
Qualifications:

L.R.C.S. & S.I., Dublin; house surgeon, Meath Hospital and Co. Dublin Infirmary (1903); ship’s surgeon, Indo-China S.N. Co. (1904); Assistant Medical Officer of Health (March to September, 1905); Assistant Surgeon, Government Civil Hospital (September, 1905); Acting Dirctor (1929), Deputy Director, Medical and Sanitary Services; Lecturer in Chemistry (1907-1912), Director of Studies (1909-1912)(questionable), HKCMC; Lecturer in Medical Jurisprudence and Hygiene (1924-1932), Clinical Obstetrics, HKU; member of the Legislative Council (1929-1934); President, St. Patrick's Society of Hong Kong (1934); member of Hong Kong Club

David Hunter Ainslie (1905)
Qualifications:

b. April 11, 1875 – d. June 20, 1921 Hong Kong; M.B. (1898), Ch.B., D.P.H. (1900), University of Aberdeen; D.T.M. & H. (1905), Cambridge University; Medical Officer, Anchor S. N. Navigation Co., Glasgow (1899); Medical Officer, Lagos Government Railway, West Africa (1893-1901); Gold Coast Government Railway (1901-1904); Demonstrator in the School of Tropical Medicine, London (1905); came to Hong Kong, joined the medcial practice of Drs. Stedman, Reinnie and Harston (1905); Lecturer in Physiology (1905-1908), HKCMC; owned and ran a private practice in Amoy (Xiamen) (1909); appointed surgeon with a Briitsh Mediterranean squadron, and was later seconded to the French and Japanese navies operating in the Mediterranean during WWI; Medical Officer, S.S. Keemuo, of the Ocean Shipping Company; member of Hong Kong Club; a prominent member of the Masonic Order in Hong Kong

Chan Hin-fun 陳衍芬 (1905)
Qualifications:

Head of Medical Department, Alice Memorial and Nethersole Hospitals (c.1905); Lecturer, Director of Studies (1908), Principal (1933), Guangzhou Guonghua Medical College 廣東光華醫學院; Medical Superintendent, Guonghua Charity Hospital 光華贈醫院 (1908); Editor, Chinese Medical Journal; publications: 衛生展覽與市民健康的關係 (The Relations between Sanitation Exhibition and the Health of City Drillers), Guangzhou Sanitation, 1908

Gerald Hall Lloyd Fitzwilliams (1906)
Physician-Turned-Spook
Qualifications: M.B., University of Edinburgh, ca.1904;  F.R.C.S., Edinburgh, Newcastle-Emlyn, 1907; Fellow, Edinburgh Obstetrical Society, 1907

(Updated on November 19, 2012) Fitzwilliams (b.1882, most probably Llandyfriog, Cardiganshire, Wales - d. April 8, 1968) was a house surgeon at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary in around 1905-06. He came to Hong Kong either in 1906 or 1907 to start his private practice at Alexandra Building in Central. He asked his colleague at the Glasgow Royal Infirmary, James Cyril Dalmahoy Allan, to join his practice in 1909. Allan came to Hong Kong the following year and became his partner. Fitzwilliams taught Practical Physiology and Pathology (1908-1909), and Anatomy (1909-1912) at the Hong Kong College of Medicine. He was elected a member of the Sanitary Board on January 20, 1909, and again on January 20, 1912. He resided in a flat on the Peak, which he shared with Allan.

The year next following the onset of the Great War, Ftizwilliams returned to the U.K. and joined the Royal Army Medical Corps; he was shipped to Petrograd (St. Petersburg) to work for his brother, Duncan Campbell  Lloyd Fitzwilliams, who headed Lady Muriel Paget's Anglo-Russian Hospital. For reason unknown to me he was recruited and had become an operative of the British Secret Intelligence Service some time between 1915 and 1917. (SIS, otherwise known as MI6, was established in 1909; and yes it was home for David John Moore Cornwell, a.k.a. John le Carré, and James Bond, but not his creator Ian Fleming. Fleming was a lieutenant commander RNVR (Royal Navy Volunteer Reserve) in the Naval Intelligence Division, who served as Navy's liaison officer with MI6.) In 1917, Fitzwilliams, the spook (when I first read about this, I thought the material covered a different person of the same name, I thought wrong), was resent to Russia under the cover of a member of the Anglo-Russian Trade Mission. Very soon, he found his way to Southern Russia and from there to Romania, assuming this time the role of an army captain. His was tasked with collecting intelligence about military and political positions of nations/regions in the Eastern Front, viz. Romania, Poland, and Bohemia, in relation to their loyalty to the Entente. He and a French general by the name of Tabois were given a difficult mission to turn the side of Ukraine that supported and fought for the Central Powers, which they eventually failed. Tabois was under the command of General Henri Mathias Berthelot, chief of the French military mission in Romania. Fitzwilliams left the Eastern Front by the end of 1918.

Two of Fitzwilliams' brothers were also engaged in the same theater of war, and sometimes they met. Duncan Fitzwilliams (b.1878-d.1954) C.M.G., M.D., C.M., Edinburgh, F.R.C.S. (Edinburgh, London), who were previously in Petrograd, commanded the British Red Cross Unit at the Prince Mircea Hospital in Roman from December 1916 to November 1917. He was a captain of the Royal Army Medical Corps, and on October 10, 1918 was promoted to the rank of acting Lieutenant-Colonel. After the war, he was surgeon at the St. Mary Hospital, and the Mount Vernon Hospital and the Radium Institute, both in London. He was also a prolific author on medical topics; his published works had included: A Practical Manual of Bandaging, Radium and cancer (Curietherapy), Cancer of the breast, etc. The other brother was Edward Crawford Lloyd Fitzwilliams, C.M.G., A.S.C. (b.1872-d.1936) of the Royal Army Service Corps, a war hero who served in the Boer War and the Great War. In fact, all eight Fitzwilliams boys were in military service and all except one was in the Great War - fighting, saving lives or spooking around. John Kenrick Lloyd Fitzwilliams (b.1885-d.1918), M.C., a major of the Royal Field Artillery was killed in action during the advance on the Hindenburg Line in August 1918. (John's son, Major Anthony John Fitzwilliams Hyde of the 4th/7th Royal Dragoon Guards, was wounded landing in Normandy in 1944; he died two weeks after the D-day.) Richard Braithwaite Lloyd Fitzwilliams (b.1873-d.1902) served in the Royal Indian Marine, and became a lieutenant (Defense Squadron) (1895-1902). He died in service. Cuthbert Collingwood Lloyd Fitzwilliams (b.1875-d.1954)  was in the Army Service Corps as in the case of Edward. He was promoted to the rank of lieutenant (temporary) on September 22, 1914. After the war, Cuthbert went to Indonesia to run a rubber plantation. Francis Crompton Lloyd Fitzwilliams (b.1877-d. Unknown) was in the Royal Navy; he was confirmed as a sub-lieutenant on February 15, 1897. William Logie Lloyd Fitzwilliams (b.1879-d.1901) was a lance corporal in the First Battalion,  Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders. He was not in the Great War, he died in South Africa on May 20, 1901 fighting the Boer War.

According to J.C. Dalmahoy Allan, who himself went to France in 1917 to join the war, Fitzwilliams was already back in Hong Kong when Allan returned to the city in 1920. Fitzwilliams had by then given up medicine altogether; the scope of his activities in Hong Kong is unknown to me. In fact, I lost his trail at that point, except bits and pieces that said he was sojourning in Africa and Europe before returning to the U.K. in 1932. There was no information that showed whether his SIS role ended along with the Great War, or he took it with him to Hong Kong, and thence to Africa and Europe.

Gerald's brother Edward C.L. Fitzwilliams
source: Dave Boutcher
Fitzwilliams was the son of Charles Home Lloyd Fitzwilliams (b.1843-d.1925) and Margaret Alice Crawford (b.1847-d.1928). His grandfather, Edward Crompton Lloyd Hall (b.1807-d.1880), had his surname changed to Fitzwilliams in 1849 to sever ties with his father, Benjamin Hall, on knowing that he wasn't going to inherit anything from Benjamin despite of his status as the eldest son. I tried and failed to find a photograph of Fitzwilliams, but noted it was natural for SIS men to be camera shy [Well, that is not true, there is a good number of photos taken of him in 1917-18 in Romania, some together with Duncan and Edward; they are simply not available to me.] I did find one of Edward in dress uniform (photo on the left, source: Dave Boutcher), which was simply too brilliant a photo not to be shared. Sotheby held an auction on June 27, 1969, in which the bulk of the contents were property of Fitzwilliams who died in 1968, unmarried. The catalog of this auction is even available today on the internet. Fitzwilliams had been keeping a journal since 1902 and continued until 1968, the year he died. His diaries, all 68 volume, are now kept at the National Library of Wales.

References:
- The Archer Family [internet].
- BBC / WW2 People's War [internet].
- The British Journal of Nursing, January 26, 1918.
- Carmarthen County War Memorial / County Boer War Memorials [internet].
- Dafydd Emrys Evans (1987) Constancy of Purpose, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
- The Edinburgh Obstetrical Society (1922) The Transactions of the Edinburgh Obstetrical Society, Session 1920-1921, Volume XLI, Edinburgh: Oliver and Boyd.
- Edinburgh University Sports Union [internet].
- Hiroyoshi Kano (2008) Indonesian Exports, Peasant Agriculture and the World Economy 1850-2000, Singapore: National University of Singapore.
The Hong Kong Government Gazette, January 29, 1909, Appointment #49; January 26, 1912, Appointment #20.
- James Cyril Dalmahoy Allan, A Memoir by D.F., The Archers, the Goodmans and Associated Families [internet].
- London Gazette, December 21, 1897; October 3, 1914 (Supplement); March 1, 1919 (Supplement).
- National Archives / India Office Records / Royal Indian Marine / Navy [internet].
- The Secretary of the State for India in Council (1902) The Indian List and Indian Office List for 1902, London: Harrison and Sons.
- P. Tomaselli (2002) C's Moscow station – The Anglo-Russian trade mission as cover for SIS in the early 1920s.
- The Peerage, A genealogical survey of the peerage of Britain as well as the royal families of Europe [internet].
- Rhyfel Byd 1914-1918 a’r profiad Cymreig / Welsh experience of World War 1914-1918 [internet].
- Victor M. Fic (1977) Revolutionary War for Independence and the Russian Question, New Delhi: Shakti Malik Abhinav Publications.

John Whittam Hartley (1906)
Qualifications: M.B., B.S., Owens College (later Victoria University of Manchester) (1904)

(Updated on November 20, 2012) Hartley (b. January 10, 1882, Burnley, Lancashire – d. unk.) came to Hong Kong soon after he graduated from the Owens College in 1904 and worked as a government doctor. I was able to find the following official appointments of him dated between 1906 and 1912: Temporary Assistant Surgeon in the Medical Department, e.dt. October 4, 1906; Surgeon-Lieutenant in the Hong Kong Volunteer Corps., e.dt. August 21, 1907; Medical Officer at Kowloon, e.dt. October 15, 1909; acting Assistant Medical Officer of Health standing in for Wilfred W. Pearse, e.dt. April 10, 1911; Official Justice of the Peace, e.dt. 1912. Hartley taught Fevers at HKCMC between 1909 and 1912.

There was a Royal Air Force Volunteer Reserve pilot, LAC (Leading Aircraftman) Denis Michael Whittam Hartley (b.1921 - d. April 10, 1941) who died in war at the age of 19. His parents were John Whittam Hartley and Eva Althea Hartley. I wonder if this was our Hartley. LAC Hartley was buried in Berkshire, which obviously was far away from Burnley.

References:
- Dafydd Emrys Evans (1987) Constancy of Purpose, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
- Fiddes, Edward (Ed.), The Victoria University of Manchester: Register of Graduates up to July 1, 1908, Manchester: Sherratt and Hughes, 1908
- flickr.com / Leading Airaftman Denis Michael Whittam Hartley by red-eye [internet].
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, October 5, 1906, Appointment #836; August 23, 1907, Appointment #549; October 22, 1909, Appointment #663; May 12, 1911, Appointment #145.

James Cyril Dalmahoy Allan
Qualifications:

Allan (b.1882 - d.1926, Hong Kong)

References:
- Dafydd Emrys Evans (1987) Constancy of Purpose, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
- James Cyril Dalmahoy Allan, A Memoir by D.F., The Archers, the Goodmans and Associated Families [internet].

Karl Hoch (1907)
Qualifications: M.D., University of Kiel, Germany (May 7, 1904)

Hoch became qualified to practice in Hong Kong on April 15, 1907, and joined the private practice of Drs. Justi and Muller in the same year. I have no other information on him in addition to the above.

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, April 19, 1907, Notice #282.
- Smith, Carl T., The German Speaking Community in Hong Kong 1846-1918, Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society Hong Kong Branch, Vol.34,, 1994.

Raphael Aaron Belilios (1907)
Qualifications: M.B., B.S., University of Edinburgh; F.R.C.S., Edinburgh (October 21, 1903); M.D., University of Edinburgh (July 28, 1905)
Publications: The Discovery of the Human Trypanosoma (co- author)

(Updated on November 21, 2012) Belilios (b. unk. - d. June 19, 1929, Shanghai) became qualified to practice in Hong Kong on March 4, 1907. He taught physiology at HKCMC from 1908 to 1912. He died at the General Hospital in Shanghai. A reference source referred to Belilios as an eye specialist in Hong Kong and Shanghai.

References:
- The British Medical Journal, October 31, 1903, Public Health.
- Dafydd Emrys Evans (1987) Constancy of Purpose, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, March 8, 1907, Notice#158.
- The Straits Times, June 29, 1929, p.8, Social and Personal.

George Montagu Harston (1908)
Qualifications:

(Updated on November 19, 2012) b. 1873 - d. 1934 Putney; M.B. (1904), M.D. (1906), London University; L.M.; M.O.S.U.K. (1910); M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., London; D.O., University of Oxford (1914); Honorary Ophthalmic Surgeon, Tung Wah Hospital (1908); senior partner in the private practice of Stedman, Reinnie and Harston; President (1907-1908), British Medical Association Hong Kong and China Branch; appointed a member of the Medical Board and to serve as acting Secretary of the Board on April 6, 1909; Lecturer in Midwifery and Diseases of Women (1898-1902), Pathology and Materia Medica, examiner in Materia Medica and Therapeutics, HKCMC; Hong Kong Representative (1931), Member of the General Committee (1931), British Journal of Ophthalmology; President, Royal Society of St. George, Hong Kong (1925-1926); Member of Hong Kong Club

References:
The Hong Kong Government Gazette, April 8, 1909, Appointment #219

Edward Wilfred Kirk (1908)
Qualifications: M.B., Ch.B.; F.R.C.S., Edinburgh

(Updated on November 16, 2012) Kirk became qualified to practice in Hong Kong in December 1908. He was appointed a member of the Midwives Board on January 9, 1930. The term of office was for three years. In 1930, he gave an address at 4/F, China Building.

Reference: The Hong Kong Government Gazette, January 17, 1930, Appointment #35, Notice #41

Arthur C. Franklin (1909)
Qualifications:

d.1933; F.I.C. of Apothecary, Government Civil Hospital; Lecturer in Chemistry (1909-1912), HKCMC; one of the nine lecturers transferred from HKCMC to the Faculty of Medicine, HKU (1912); Lecturer in Chemistry (1912-1918), HKU; member of the University Senate, HKU (1912)

Charles Montague Heanley 韓義理 (1909)
Qualifications: M.B., B.S., University of London (1900); M.R.C.S., London; L.R.C.P, London
Publications: Notes on Some Fossiliferous Rocks near Hong Kong, Bulletin of the Geological Society of China, Vol. #3, Issue #1, March 1924; Hong Kong Celts,  Bulletin of the Geological Society of China, Vol. #7, Issue #3-4, September 1928.

(Updated on November 19, 2012) Heanley (b.1877-d.1970) became qualified to practice in Hong Kong in 1909. He was the lecturer of Practical Anatomy at HKCMC from 1908 to 1909. In addition to being a physician, pathologist and bacteriologist, Heanley was also known as a noted amateur geologist, anthropologist and archaeologist. He was credited for his 1920s discovery of ammonites on the north side of the Tolo Channel. These were the first invertebrate fossils to be found in Hong Kong.

References:
- Dafydd Emrys Evans (1987) Constancy of Purpose, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, December 3, 1909, Notice #778.
- Royal Anthropological Institute / Census of British Anthropologists [internet].
- Wang Hongzhen (Ed.), Comparative Planetology, Geological Education, History of Geology, Zeist, The Netherlands: VSP BV, 1997.

1910s

George Harold Thomas (1912)
With a habit of being the first
Qualifications:

Diocesan Boys’ School, Hong Kong; L.M.S.H., HKCMC (1912) being the first non-Chinese student and licentiate; M.B., B.S. (1914) being one of the first graduates when the there was only the Faculty of Medicine in HKU, M.D. (1920) being the first in Hong Kong, Hon LL.D. (1961), University of Hong Kong; F.R.C.S. (1961) being the first award to Fellowship without an examination, and first presentation ceremony took place outside the College premises in London; resident surgeon (1912), Superintendent designated (named for the period 1937-38), Tung Wah Hospital; Assistant Medical Officer (in charge of civil and mental hospitals, 1928); Medical Officer (in charge of the Mental Hospital and Tsan Yuk Hospital, 1937); Medical Officer, Queen Mary Hospital; Acting Director of Medical Services (1947-1949) being the first locally born person to be appointed; part time lecturer, Pharmacology, Vaccination and Anesthetics (1915-1918, 1936-1937), Obstetrics (1919-1921), Tropical Medicine and Parasitology (1922), Ophthalmology (1925), Mental Diseases (1938), HKU

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, August 7, 1914, Notice #301.


Li Shu-fan 李樹芬 (1912)
"One of the main philosophic convictions of my life has been the desire to leave the world a little richer than when I found it.", Li Shu-fan
Qualifications:

Li Shu-fan
b.1887 Hong Kong – d.November 24, 1996 Hong Kong; Christian; spent his childhood living in Taishan, Guangdong 廣東台山; lived with his father in Boston (1899-1902); Diocesan Boys’ School (1902-1903); graduated from HKCMC, qualified with L.M.S., Hong Kong (1908, same year as Prof. C.Y. Wang); M.B.B.S. (1910), D.T.M. & H. (1911) University of Edinburgh; F.R.C.S., Edinburgh (1921); active republic revolutionary, member of the Tongmenghui 中國同盟會 (since 1905); Minister of Health under the joint Revolutionary Military Government in Canton and Medical Adviser (1911) to Dr. Sun Yat-sen, a fellow alumnus of HKCMC, first congregation (1892); retired to Hong Kong and entered private practice (1912-1921) when Canton fell to warlord Long Jiguang 龍濟光; Dean of the Canton Kung Yee University Medical School 廣東公醫學院 (1923-1924); sat on the Medical Board (1933-1939) Superintendent and Chairman of the Board, Yeung Wo Nursing Home 香江養和園, later reorganized by Li and became the Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital 養和醫院; retired from medical practice (1958), but retained the two positions at the Hospital until his death; Hon LL.D., HKU (1961); F.I.C.S. (1961); member, Board of Regents of the International College of Chest Physicians (1956); member, Medical Board; President, Hong Kong Chinese Medical Association; Director, Hong Kong Anti-Tuberculosis Association; Patron, Hong Kong Paediatric Society; District Chief Surgeon, St. John's Ambulance Brigade; Permanent Advisor, Tung Wah Hospitals; member, Urban Council and its predecessor, Sanitary Board; member, Legislative and Executive Councils (1937-1941); Justice of the Peace; author of "Hong Kong Surgeon", Li’s own autobiography (published in 1964); naming honor: Li Shu Fan Medical Foundation (1962), Li Shu Fan Building
The Straits Times, on September 13, 1964, carried this story from UPI:
"Pigtail Cure (Chicago, Sat.) - Men who are fearful of growing bald should take a tip from the Chinese and wear a pigtail, a surgeon said yesterday. Li Shu-fan told the International College of Surgeon that the Manchu conquerors made the Chinese wear their hear in pig-tails. The wright of the pigtail stimulated blood vessels in the scalp, and the Chinese wore their hair in good health, he said."
John Taylor Connell (1912)
Qualifications:

Connell was the Principal Civil Medical Officer from 1912 to 1923.

Theodor van Wezel (Wesel) (1912)
Qualifications: M.D., University of Freiburg, Germany (1905)

(Updated on November 19, 2012) Wezel became qualified to practice in Hong Kong in 1912, he joined the practice of Drs. Muller and Justi in the same year.

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, April 26, 1912, Notice #139.

Edward Leslie Martyn Lobb (1912)
Qualifications: M.B., B.S. (1908), C.M. (1910), University of London; M.R.C.S., England (1908); L.R.C.P, London (1908); F.R.C.S. England (1910)
Publications: The Hospital and the Primary Health Centre in relation to a Health Service, from the standpoint of the General Practitioner, The Journal of the Royal Society for the Promotion of Health (1921)

(Updated on November 19, 2012) Lobb, trained at the Guy's Hospital, came to Hong Kong in 1912, in that same year he became qualified to practice here. He was the first chair professor of Clinical Surgery at HKU, appointed in 1915. He was also the first Honorary Visiting Surgeon appointed to the Government Civil Hospital. Lobb left Hong Kong in 1915.

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, March 22, 1912, Notice #96.

Charles William McKenny (1912)
Qualifications: B.S., M.D., Trinity College, Ireland

McKenny (b. February 21,1885-d. ) was listed as resident surgeon at the Meath Hospital in Dublin (1911). He arrived in Hong Kong in 1912 and was appointed Medical Officer of Victoria Gaol. He became Supernumerary Surgeon-Lieutenant in the Hong Kong Volunteer Corps, e.dt. August 5, 1914. He was an Official Justice of the Peace from 1917 (e.dt. October 5) to at least 1927. When John T.C. Johnson, the sitting medical chief went on sick leave, McKenny was put in temporary charge (December 14, 1918 to January 8, 1919) of the Victoria Hospital. During the same period, he was also Superintendent of the Government Civil Hospital, Visiting Medical Officer to the Tung Wah Hospital. He was Medical Officer to Victoria Gaol from December 14 to 20, 1918. He was appointed acting Principal Civil Medical Officer during the absence on leave of John Taylor Connell Johnson, e.dt. February 8, 1919, and again e.dt. July 7, 1923.

He taught a number of subjects at HKU: Clinical Medicine (1913-1927), Anesthetics (1919-1920), Anesthetist to the Surgical Clinic (1920-1925), Clinical Obstetrics (1923-1925), Radiology and Radio-Therapeutics (1927). He was tutor in the Out-Patients Department from 1921 to 1922, and was a member of the HKU Senate from 1918 to 1920.

He was born to James and Kate McKenny. James McKenny was a veterinary surgeon having an address at 116 Stephens Green & Clonliffe, Dublin in 1885.

References:
- Dafydd Emrys Evans (1987) Constancy of Purpose, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, August 7, 1914, Appointment #299; October 5, 1917, Appointment #446; February 21, 1919, Appointment #81; July 13, 1923, Appointment #314; June 10, 1927, Notice #349.
- Irish Genealogy / Search Church Records / Area – Dublin [internet].
- Medical and Sanitary Reports for the Year  1918, Hong Kong Government.
- The National Archives of Ireland / 1911 census [internet].
- Proceedings of Meeting, Hong Kong Legislative Council, January 30, 1919.
- Ure, Gavin, Governors, Politics and the Colonial Office: Public Policy in Hong Kong, 1918-58, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2012.

Kenelm Hutchinson Digby (1913)
Qualifications:

b. August 4, 1884 London - d. February 23, 1953 London; M.B.; married Selina D. Law (1913); M.B., B.S., Guy’s Hospital Medical School, London (1907); F.R.C.S. (1910); Surgical Registrar, Guy’s Hospital (1909-1911); Principal Medical Officer, Great Central Railway, England (1912); Professor of Anatomy (1913-1923), Professor of Surgery (1923-1945), Ho Tung Professor of Surgery (1914-1945), Emeritus Professor (1945), HKU; member of the Medical Board (1923-1925); Honorary Consultant in Surgery, Hong Kong Government (1915-1948); Surgeon, Queen Mary Hospital (1930-1948); interned in the Stanley Camp during the Japanese occupation where he conducted a surgical clinic for fellow internees throughout the internment as well as establishing and running a camp hospital nicldung the performance of surgical procedures; returned to U.K. in 1949; engaged in research work at the Royal College of Surgeons of England; President, British Medical Association Hong Kong and China Branch (1956); Council, British Medical Association (1952-1953); publications: Immunity in Health: the Functions of the Tonsils and the Appendix (1919); honor: O.B.E. (1939), K. H. Digby Memorial Fund, HKU (1954)

Sien Ting (1914)
Qualifications:

Ting, a surgeon dentist who practiced at No.14, D'auglgar Street, placed an advertisement in the China Mail of February, 1914, in which he claimed to offer free consultation and very moderate terms.

References:
- The China Mail, Hong Kong: February 2, 1914

Chak Chiu-hang (1915)
Qualifications: M.B., B.S., HKU (December 14, 1914)

Chak was one of the HKCMC students transferred to the medical faculty of HKU in 1912. He became qualified to practice in Hong Kong, e.dt. March 26, 1915.

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, March 26, 1915, Notice #137.

Herbert Gastineau Earle 安爾 (1915)
Qualifications: B.A. (1905), M.A., M.B., Cambridge (1913); F.R.S.M.; F.R.S.T.M.H.
Honor: LL.D. (Honoris causa), HKU (1936)
Publications: An Imperial Policy in Education, with Special Reference to the University of Hong Kong, 1926; Report on the Lester Trust (Shanghai), 1927


Herbert G. Earle
1900s photo by Ernest Walter Histed
Source: National Portrait Gallery
(Updated on November 18, 2012) Earle (b.1882, Brentford, Middlesex - d. on or since June 5, 1946) was a Demonstrator in Physiology at the University of Cambridge since 1906. He left Cambridge in 1915 and came to Hong Kong to take up a teaching post at HKU, but did not register to practice here until April 27, 1917. He was the second chair professor of physiology and biology at HKU from 1915 to 1918 succeeding G.M. Malcolmson. He became the founding chair professor of  physiology in 1918. He assumed the position of the Dean of the Faculty of Medicine in several occasions (1916-1920, 1923, 1925). Earle suggested a new medical education curriculum in 1918 modeled after the British system. The reform he proposed had included a stronger association between the medical school and the hospital that would provide necessary beds for offering students placement opportunities. He was made Honorary Visiting Physician to the Government Civil Hospital on January 31, 1916 during the absence on leave of George Ernest Aubrey and was appointed on December 19, 1918 an acting member of the Medical Board standing in for Kenneth Hutchson Digby who was on leave, and again on May 11, 1923.

Earle left HKU (and Hong Kong) in 1928 to take up the office of general adviser to the Lester trust and later the Director of the Henry Lester Institute of Medical Research and Preventive Medicine in Shanghai. He was elected a director of the Chinese Association for Physiological Sciences 中國生理學會 from 1926 to 1934. He co-founded the Chinese Journal of Physiology 中國生理學雜誌 with Robert Kho-seng Lim 林可勝, Wu Xianhe 吳憲和, and B.E. Read 伊博思, the three were professors of the Peking Union Medical College 北平協和醫學院. Earle died whilst returning to the UK after internment in Shanghai during the Second Sino-Japanese War (the War of Resistance Against Japan).

Earle married Audrey Mary Harrison (she was probably an American medical missionary, I will try and have this confirmed). They had one daughter, Monica (Audrey) Earle, who was born in Hong Kong on October 23, 1917. Monica Earle married Ezra Paul Francis in early 1940s, they later moved to Goffstown, New Hampshire where she remained until her death on July 2, 2004. She probably had a second marriage, to a man named Beck.

References:
- 85 Years of Caduceus: 1922-2007, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University.
- Chinese Association for Physiological Sciences [internet]
- Dafydd Emrys Evans (1987) Constancy of Purpose, Faculty of Medicine, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press.
- GenealogyBuff.com / Town of Goffstown, Hillsborough County, New Hampshire / Index of Death (2004) [internet].
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, January 28, 1916, Appointment #33; June 29, 1917, Notice#297; February 14, 1919, Appointment #70.
- obitphaneuf.net./Monica Beck [internet].
- Tsang, Chiu-long, Carol, Out of the Dark: Women's Medicine and Women's Diseases in Colonial Hong Kong, Hong Kong: The HKU Scholars Hub [internet].

C.E. Lim 林宗揚 (1916)
China’s first microbiologist
Qualifications:

Alias Lin Zongyang; b. June 11, 1891 - Penang, Malaya – d. October 5, 1988 Peking; graduate of Nanyang Middle School of Penang (1911); last batch of admissions to HKCMC, transferred to Faculty of Medicine, HKU (1912); M.B.B.S., University of Hong Kong (1916), first graduation congregation of the University; Assistant to Government Bacteriologist (1917), under the direction of Harold Macfarlane, M.D.; invited by Wu Lien-the, M.D. (also from Penang) to Peking to assist in the opening of the Peking Central Hospital (1918) in the capacity as a resident and a bacteriologist; Dr.PH. (1922), Johns Hopkins Hospital School of Public Health; studied preparation of vaccines from the Liverpool School of Tropical Medicine (1922); the overseas studies were supported by a Rockefeller Foundation Scholarship; Professor of Bacteriology (1930) (became the first graduate of HKU to hold a chair in bacteriology), Director of Studies (1937), Peking Union Medical College 協和醫學院 (1937); Professor, Peking Medical University 北京大學醫學 (1942); President, Chinese Medical Association 中華醫學會 (1934); Advisor, English Edition of the National Medical Journal of China 中華醫學雜誌 (1956)

Chau Wai Cheung 周懷璋 (1916)
Qualifications:

M.B.B.S., University of Hong Kong (1916), Christian (Hong Kong Anglican Church); graduation was marked by the First Congregation of HKU held on December 14, 1916; President, Hong Kong Chinese Medical Association (1927-28, 1933-34, 1939-40); Chairman (1923-1926), Yeung Wo Nursing Home 香江養和園, the forerunner of Hong Kong Sanitarium; director, Hong Kong Sanitarium (1933-1965); sat on the Nurses Board (year unk.)

Daisy Annabella Murdoc Gale (1918)
Qualifications:

b.1875-d.1930; M.D. (1912), University of Glasgow; acting Medical Officer of Health (1918); author of "Some Points in the Epidemiology of an Outbreak of Cerebro-Spinal Fever in Hong Kong, 1918", Journal of Hygiene, November 1921

Henry Brice Parker (1919)
Qualifications: M.B., B.S., London University; M.R.C.S. England; L.R.C.P., London; D.T.M. & H.
Honor: D.S.O., D.S.C. (1918); C.B.E. (1944)
Publications: co-author of Neosalvarsan, The Lancet, Vol. #180, Issue #4637, July 13, 1912; A Case of Gummatous Ulceration Simulating Rodent Ulcer Treated with Salvarsan, British Journal of Dermatology, Vol. #24, Issue #9, September 1912

Parker's name showed up in Hong Kong in 1919; he was a Royal Navy Surgeon Lieutenant seconded to Hong Kong government as a temporary Government Bacteriologist, e.dt. February 12, succeeding Harold Macfarlane who had died suddenly; 9 days later, he received an additional appointment as a Medical Officer. The next record showed that he was promoted from the rank of Surgeon Commander to Surgeon Captain, e.dt. July 3, 1936. He was put on the navy retired list on June 3, 1943, with the rank of Surgeon Captain.

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, February 21, 1919, Appointments #84, #85.
- The London Gazette, July 3, 1936; June 25, 1943.
- Naval History Homepage / Royal Navy Honors and Gallantry Awards [internet].
- Supplement to the London Gazette, June 21, 1918; January 1, 1944.

Hugh Montagu Cameron Macaulay (1919)
Qualifications: B.S., B.Sc., London University; M.D.; M.R.C.S., England; L.R.C.P., London; D.P.H.
Honor:  K.H.P. (June 30, 1944 to July 1, 1947); C.B.E. (1956)
Publications: co-author of Hospital Planning and Administration, 1966. The other co-author was famous architect and London University Professor, Richard Llewelyn-Davies, Baron of Hastoe.

undatedphoto of H.C.M. Macaulay
source: timemachine.myzen.co.uk
(Updated on November 27, 2012) Macaulay (b. July 28, 1892 – d. January 19, 1985) was an officer of the R.A.M.C. who joined up no later than August 1916. Two British military doctors were seconded to the Hong Kong government in February 1919; Macaulay was one of them. He was a R.A.M.C. Captain and was appointed a Medical Officer e.dt. February 21. The other was a navy doctor, Henry Brice Parker who was appointed a government bacteriologist. There was no record at what time he left Hong Kong or when he resigned from R.A.M.C. The next records of his I found was in 1942, which showed that he was appointed by the Minister of Health as a member of the General Nursing Council for England and Wales; he remained in that position at least until 1945. He was Medical Officer of Health, Middlesex County Council  from 1944 to 1947. He was listed as School Medical Officer at County of Middlesex in 1947. He was Senior Administrative Medical Officer at the North West Metropolitan Regional Hospital Board  from 1948 to 1951, or possibly for a longer period. While in that office, he was accredited for completing and submitting the schemes for the grouping of hospitals in the UK as a part of the overhaul of the British medical services following the passing of the National Health Service Act 1946. His proposal was submitted in 1948. Macaulay was one of the 9 members of the Expert Committee who attended a WHO conference in Geneva on Organization of Medical Care, on June 18 through 23, 1956. The findings of the conference were published in 1957 in the WHO report titled Role of Hospitals in Programs of Community Health Protection.
Macaulay was born to William Cameron Macaulay and Edith Constance Mary Hart. He married Julia Marguerite Garner (b. August 28, 1892 – d. 1987). They had 2 children: Jack Cameron Macaulay, who was born in Hong Kong on January 30, 1918, and so was daughter Violet June Macaulay, November 20, 1919.

References:
- books.google.co,uk. [internet].
- The British Journal of Nursing, August 1951.
- The Edinburgh Gazette, June 30, 1944.
- The Education Committees Year Book 1947, London: Education, the Official Organ of the Official Organ of the Association of Education Committees, 1947
- Genealogy Data / Page 2782 [internet].
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, February 21, 1919, Appointment #85.
- Horder, Thomas Jeeves (Advsy. Ed.), Health and Social Welfare 1945-1946, London: Todd Publishing Co., Ltd., 1946
- The London Gazette, July 1, 1947.
- Supplement to the London Gazette, January 2, 1956

Hugh Glencairn Monteith (1919)
Qualifications: B.A., B.Sc., University of Cambridge (1902) (I was unable to find any medical degree associated with Monteith, but shall keep looking. It would be quite odd to appoint a non-doctor as medical officer of health, wouldn't it?)
Honor: D.S.O. (1915); O.B.E. (after 1919 and before 1934)

Monteith (b. May 11, 1882, Glencairn, Dumfries, Scotland – d. October 10, 1963, Truro, Cornwall, England) joined R.A.M.C. no later than 1905. His name first appeared in Hong Kong in 1919 pertaining to 2 government appointments, which had the same effective date - August 12, 1919 - acting member of the Medical Board and acting Medical Officer of Health. In both cases, he was standing in for Alice Deborah Hicking (nee Sibree), who was the first woman doctor in Hong Kong. Coincidentally, Monteith, a captain, had just been appointed an acting lieutenant-colonel, e.dt. July 10, 1919. He was with the 47th Field Ambulance unit of R.A.M.C. at the time, and I therefore assume (assume, because I couldn't find any record that so confirmed) that this unit was serving in Hong Kong. R.A.M.C. provided non-emergency ambulatory assistance to the Hong Kong Fire Services prior to 1953. He was listed on January 19, 1934 as a R.A.M.C. major holding the position of Deputy Assistant Director Medical Services. A few months later on May 1, he was promoted to the rank of brevet lieutenant colonel. Monteith retired from the British Army on May 11, 1940, his last rank was Colonel.

Monteith was born to the Rev. John Monteith of Glencairn Parish and Ellen Maria Neve. He lost two brothers in the Great War, who were killed within a week of each other: John Cassels Monteith, Lieutenant-Colonel of the 2nd Battalion, Bedfordshire (K.I.A. October 1, 1915); and William Neve Monteith, Lieutenant (Reverend) of the 2nd Battalion, Rifle Brigate (The Prince Consort's Own)(K.I.A. September 25, 1919). The two were respectively the first and second son of his father. Monteith married Dorothy Huntly Dunell in 1915. Their daughter Cynthia Helen Montieth married John William Maxwell Aitken in 1939. Aitken, a Canadian, was, among other offices held, Chancellor of the University of New Brunswick; and an extraordinary British life peer who disclaimed his barony title 3 days after he inherited it from his father. Monteith started playing rugby while studying at Cambridge. He played for the Scottish (National) Rugby Team from 1905 to 1908, and was listed in 1905 as an army player with 8 international caps.

Monteith could possibly be the only Medical Officer of Health in Hong Kong who didn't have a medical degree. Should I keep him in this roll if he wasn't a doctor? I suppose there is no urgency in making a decision now.

References:
- Army Rugby Union / International Caps – Army Players [internet].
- ESPN / Scrum / Scotland / Players & Officials [internet].
- Family Search – Community Trees [internet].
- Goalserve.com [intrnet].
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, August 22, 1919, Appointment #379; August 29, 1919, Appointment #398.
- The London Gazete, March 16, 1934; May 8, 1934; May 7, 1940.
- Medical and Sanitary Reports for the Year 1919, Hong Kong.
- The Peerage [internet].
- Roll of Honor / Dumfrieshire / Moniaive War Memorial [internet].
- Supplement to the London Gazette, July 10, 1919. 8774
- University of Glasgow / Name Search / Special Collection [internet].

1920s

Wang Chungyi 王寵益 (1920)
Pathologist; Hong Kong’s first professor
Qualifications:

Alias C.Y. Wang; b.1889 Hong Kong - d.1930 Hong Kong; Christian; grandson of Wang Yuanshen 王元深 (b.1817-d.1930), Chair of Pathology (1920-1930), University of Hong Kong; researched focusing on tuberculosis; died from tuberculosis (1930)

W.J. Woodman (1921)
Qualifications:

W.J. Woodman was Assistant Medical Officer of Health. He lectured Hygiene at HKU (1921-1923).

Bagenal Harvey Mellon (1921)
Qualifications: M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P. (year unk.); D.P.H., The Dublin University (1917)

Mellon was originally an British Army veterinarian. He was appointed a temporary lieutenant in the Army Veterinary Corps., e.dt. December16, 1914; and was promoted to the rank of a temporary captain exactly a year later. The first record of Mellon in Hong Kong appeared in 1921, he was appointed Second Health Officer of the Port, e.dt. September 28. There were three other appointments that followed: Health Officer of Port and Inspector of Emigrants, e.dt. August 2, 1923, (he remained in this position until at least on January 20, 1931); Official Justice of the Peace, e.dt. November 3, 1927 and; acting Medical Officer of Health, e.dt. November 4, 1929.

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, October 14, 1921, Appointment #424; November 23, 1923, Appointment #509; November 4, 1927, Appointment #636; November 1, 1929, Appointment #559; January 23, 1931, Appointment #43.
- The London Gazette, January 5, 1915.
- Supplement to the London Gazette, January 12, 1916.

Ma Luk 馬祿臣 (1922)
Qualifications:

b. year unknown Hunan 湖南 – d.1963 Hong Kong; Christian; L.M.S., HKCMC (1905); good friend and keen supporter of Dr. Sun Yat-sen; Members of the inaugural directors of the board of Yeung Wo Nursing Home (1922); according to a book about Hong kong history, Ma was the first Chinese member of the Masonic order in Hong Kong (but this cannot be true, early members of the Hong Kong Masonic Order had included Ho Kai and Wei Yuk as its members, years before Ma’s time); husband of Li Huiying 李惠英, educator, lawyer and promoter of Taiwan Strait relations who after Ma’s death remarried writer and political commentator Tao Mulian 陶慕廉; practiced with two sons, Ma Chiu Chong 馬超莊 and Ma Chiu Ki 馬超奇, on the third floor of King's Theatre Building in Central, Tel: 26504 in the early 1960s before he died in 1963

B.C. Wong 黃菖霖 (1922)
Anti-slavery activist
Qualifications:

Members of the inaugural directors of the board of Yeung Wo Nursing Home (1922) ; member of the congregation of the All Saints Church 諸聖堂, representative of All Saints Church in the Anti-Mui-Jai Society 反蓄婢會, which was founded in August 1921 by a number of Protestant churches for the purpose to rid of the Mui-Jai custom, a quasi-slavery tradition in China, Chau Wai Cheung was also of the Hong Kong Anglican Church

Edward Pigott Minett (1922)
Qualifications:

d. October 5, 1935 Devon; trained at Guy’s Hospital; M.R.C.S., L.R.C.P., D.P.H., Cambridge University (1907); M.D., Université libre de Bruxelles (1907); D.T.M.&H. (1909); specialized in bacteriology and public health; Assistant Government Bacteriologist (1910), Government Bacteriologist and Medical Officer of Health, British Guiana; came to Hong Kong and replaced H.H. Scott (Scott already left Hong Kong, the post was temporarily filled by Prof. C.Y. Wang) as the Government Bacteriologist and Officer in charge of the Bacteriological Institute (1922); Lecturer and Examiner in Hygiene and Medical Jurisprudence, Hong Kong University; Medical Officer, Hong-Kong Volunteer Defense Corps; left Hong Kong in 1931; member, British Medical Association (since 1909); publications: Diagnosis of Bacteria and Blood Parasites, Practical Tropical Sanitation, A Cheap Form of Artesian Water Supply for Villages in the Tropics , A Review of the Water Supplies of Hong Kong; Minett’s wife (name unknown), a graduated M.D. from the University of London (1916), held medical appointments in Hong Kong

Hugh Somerville Burniston (1922)
Qualifications: M.B., B.S.
Honor: C.M.G. (December 31, 1918)

(Updated on November 25, 2012) Burniston (b.1870-d.1962) was a British Royal Navy surgeon. He served as  surgeon on HMS Duke of Wellington (1900-1902); as staff surgeon on HMS Bacchante (flagship of the 3rd Cruiser Squadron in Mediterranean)(1902-1905); as staff surgeon on HMS Vernon (torpedo school ship)(1905); staff surgeon on Cumberland (training ship for cadets)(1908); as fleet surgeon on HMS Warrior (1913) and; as fleet medical officer, Atlantic Fleet (1919-1922). He was promoted to the rank of Fleet Surgeon on May 17, 1910 and Surgeon Commander some time before 1918.
He became the surgeon captain in charge of the Royal Navy Hospital in Hong Kong in 1922. He was appointed a member of the Medical Board on May 1, 1923. He retired from the navy on October 16, 1925; his name was placed on the retired list with the rank of Surgeon Rear-Admiral..

References:
- Battleships-Cruisers.co.uk / Royal Navy / Navy List 1908 Ship A to C [internet]
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, May 11, 1923, Appointment #218.
- The London Gazette, April 19, 1904; May 20, 1910; October 20, 1925.
- University of London / King's College London /Liddell Hart Center for Military Archives / Survey of the Papers of Senior UK Defence Personnel, 1900-1975 [internet].

Fitzgerald Gabbett Fitzgerald (1923)
Qualifications:
Honor: C.B., D.S.O.
Publications: A Hospital in Tientsin, North China, Journal of the Royal Army Medical Corps, Vol. #46, 1926.

(Updated on November 25, 2012) Fitzgerald (b. unk., County Kerry, Ireland - d. December 21, 1954) was surgeon with the Royal Army Medical Corps. The first record of his I've found showed that he was promoted from the rank of major to lieutenant-colonel on January 17, 1916, but a record almost exactly a year later ranked him as a brevet lieutenant-colonel. I believe he came to Hong Kong with his army unit some time in 1922/23. He received 3 Hong Kong government appointments in 1923, and they were: member of the Sanitary Board for a term of 3 years, e.dt.. April 13, 1923; member of the Medical Board, e.dt. May 1, 1923; and temporary Medical Officer in Charge at Victoria Hospital, e.dt. July 7, 1923. There was no record that showed when Fitzgerald left Hong Kong. He was later promoted to the rank of major-general

He married Emily Gosselin, who died on March 25, 1964 in Penharbour, Greystones, County Wicklow, Ireland.

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, April 13, 1923, Appointment #158; May 11, 1923, Appointment #219.
- Hong Kong Government Medical Report for the Year 1923.
- Ireland Genealogy Projects Archives / Headstones at Christ Church, Delagany [internet].
- Officers from Co Kerry Ireland who Served in WWI: List by John MacGillycuddy, Annascaul 25 Jul 1917.
- Supplement to the Edinburgh Gazette, January 17, 1916.
- Winter Catarrhs and Bronchitis, January 13, 1917, p.58

J.T. Smalley (1923)
Qualifications:

J.T. Smalley was Medical Officer of Health. He was appointed acting Lecturer in Hygiene in 1923.

Joseph Bartlerr Addison (1923)
Qualifications:

Addison was the Principal Civil Medical Officer from 1923 to 1929.


Ip Kam-wah 葉錦華 (1920s)
Qualifications:

M.B.B.S., HKU (1920); started a private practice (1920s); President, Hong Kong Chinese Medical Association (1935-1936); father of Dr. Ip Yee 葉義 (enrolled in HKU but discontinued in 1941 due to Japanese invasion; studied under the National Shanghai Medical College in free China in Chungking (Chongcing) (1942); awarded M.B.B.S. by the HKU Emergency Committee on March 22, 1946; advanced studies in the U.K.; started private practice in Hong Kong (c.1953); most noted collector of Bamboo Carving artifacts; according to his will over 200 pieces of important artifacts in his collection were donated to the Hong Kong Museum of Art after his death in 1984.) These were the addresses in the 1960s where the father and son practiced respectively: 514, Nathan Road, Kowloon, Tel. 57942; 5, Homuntin Hill Road, Kowloon, Tel. 57020

Woo Wai-tak, Arthur 胡惠德 (1925)
Rotarian to rejuvenate the club after the war
Qualifications:

b. 1888 Hong Kong – February 1964 Hong Kong; Christian, member of the congregation of the Hong Kong Anglican Church; son of Dr. U I-kai 胡爾楷醫生; brother of Dr. Katie Woo 胡素貞博士, the late headmistress of St. Paul’s Girls’ School; attended Diocesan Boys' School in Hong Kong; studied Latin and French in England; trained at Middlesex Hospital and qualified with the Conjoint diploma (1913); M.B., B.S., University of London (1916); L.R.C.P., London; M.R.C.S., England.; F.R.C.S.; F.I.C.S. (Hon.); worked at military hospitals in Britain during WWI; studied in New York and Baltimore under a Rockefeller scholarship, including training at the Johns Hopkins Hospital; Assistant Professor of Gynecology and Obstetrics, Peking Union Medical College 協和醫學院; Medical Advisor to the Ministries of Foreign Affairs and Transportation, ROC; practice as a specialist in obstetrics and gynecology in Hong Kong, his consulting-room was located at the China Building in Central (1925), and at Edinburgh House (early 1960s); Lecturer in Gynecology and Obstetrics and Internal Examiner, Hong Kong University; honorary consulting gynecologist to the Nethersole Hospital; established Babington Hospital 惠德頤養院 (his Chinese name of Wai-tak was used to name the hospital) in Babington Path 巴丙頓道 and assume the post of Medical Superintendent; President, Hong Kong Chinese Medical Association (1924-1925); Council, British Medical Association, Hong Kong and China Branch; Justice of the Peace (1938); largely responsible for the re-establishment of the Rotary Club of Hong Kong (1945, the Rotary was initially formed in 1932); internationally renowned postage stamp collector; honor: King George V Silver Jubilee Medal (1935), O.B.E. (1954)

Chau Sik-nin 周錫年 (1923)
Otolaryngologist-turned-banker
Qualifications:

b.April 13, 1903 Hong Kong –d. November 30, 1985 Hong Kong; Christian; graduate, St. Stephen College, Hong Kong (1918); M.B.B.S. (1923), Hon LL.D (1961), University of Hong Kong; D.L.O. (1925); D.O.M.S. (1926); first Chinese Otolaryngologist to practice in Hong Kong (1927); part time lecturer in Ophthalmology (1930-1936), HKU; Ophthalmologist, Government Civil Hospital (1930-1936); President, (1936-1937); Member, Medical Board (1936-1941); Member, Sanitary Board (1936-1941); Justice of the Peace (appointed on May 19, 1939); founder, Hongkong Chinese Bank 香港華人銀行 (1955), the bank was acquired by CITIC Ka Wah Bank in 2002 and ceased to exist thenceforth; director of more than 30 companies in Hong Kong and other areas in Asia Pacific; Honorary Advisor, the Chinese General Chamber of Commerce; member of the General Committee, Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce; Member (1947-1962), Senior Member (1953-1959), Legislative Council, Senior Member (1959-1962),Executive Council; inaugural Chairman, Federation of Hong Kong Industries (1960-1966); inaugural Chairman, Hong Kong Trade Development Council (1966-1970); inaugural Chairman, Hong Kong Tuberculosis Association (1948-1963); Chairman, Po Leung Kuk (1941-1942); Permanent Advisor, Tung Wah Hospitals; first cousin of Chau Tsun-Nin 周埈年 (b.1893-d.1971), senior member of the Legislative and Executive Councils; father of flamboyant barrister and socialite Chau Kai-pong 周啟邦 (b.1934-d.2010). Photo on the left: Chau escorting Princess Alexandra, a cousin of Queen Elizabeth II, during her
visit to Hong Kong in 1961

Yeo Kok-cheung 楊國璋 (1925)
The first Chinese to be appointed Director of Medical and Health Services
Qualifications:

Alias Yeo Kok-cheang, K.C. Yeo; b. April 1, 1903 Penang - d. May 22, 2004 Battle, East Sussex; Christian; married to Florence Ho Tung (March 24, 1933), daughter of Robert Hotung; M.B., B.S. (1925), M.D. (1930), HKU; D.P.H., Cambridge University (1926); D.P.M.&H., London University; 1927 Assistant Medical Officer of Health, Hong Kong (1927); Chinese Health Officer, Senior Grade (1939); Deputy Director of Health Services, Health Adviser to Urban Council (1947); Deputy Director of Medical and Health Services (1950); Director of Medical and Health Services (January 1952 – 1958), the first local civil servant to rise to the substantive position of a department director; institutionalized the position of Specialist Anesthetist in the civil medical services (1953); first Unit Controller, Auxiliary Medical Service (1952); Lecturer and Examiner in Public Health, HKU (1928); Lecturer in Public Health (1936-1938), Professor of Social Medicine (1953-1957), HKU; President, HKCMA (1932); Justice of the Peace (1938); Member, Legislative Council (1951-1957); Vice Chairman, Urban Council; Senior Hospital Medical Officer (Psychiatry), St Ebbaís Hospital, Epsom, Surrey (1963); honor: C.M.G. (1956); WHO Traveling Fellowship (1948); held the world record in sitting ups for his body weight for several years

Dr. Frederick Bunje (1927)
Qualifications: M.R.C.S., England; L.R.C.P., London (1926)

Bunje became qualified to practice in Hong Kong, e.dt. February 25, 1927. He gave an address at Alexandra Building in that year. He joined the HKVDC some time before 1938, and was promoted from the rank of lieutenant to be captain on March 1, 1838, and to be major on May 19, 1941. He was appointed an Unofficial Justice of the Peace, e.dt. October 15, 1940. There is a story about Bunje during the war years in the 1940s at the following website for anyone wishing more information: The Dark World's Fire: Tome and Lena Edgar in War. Bunje was said to be an Eurasian, according to this article.

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, February 25, 1927, Notice #109; March 4, 1938, Appointment #186; October 18, 1940, Appointment #1144; June 13, 1941, Appointment #719.

Hua Tse Jen 華則仁 (1927)
Qualifications:

b. February 2, 1901, Tianjin – ; attended Nankai High School 天津南開中學, read mining at Nankai College 南開大學; enrolled in HKU as a Hopei (Hebei) Provincial Scholar; M.B., B.S., HKU (1927); Resident physician in several hospitals (1927-1929), working under HKU; Medical Officer, Kailan Mining Administration 天津開灤礦務局 (1929-1937); Unit 2, League of Nations Medical Service, served in the interior of China (1937); Medical Superintendent, Lai Chi Kok Hospital (1938); Medical Superintendent, Kwong Wah Hospital (1940-c.1956); volunteer work in many refugee camps opened in Hong Kong prior to the fall of Hong Kong, and assisted many internees during the Japanese occupation; imprisoned for a while by the Japanese for keeping a store of food and other supplies to be smuggled in the POW camps for the internees; private practice from 1956 (his consulting-room was located on the first floor, 510 Nathan Road I 1968); President, HKBMA (1951-52); President, HKCMA (1949-50); founding member, Anti-tuberculosis Association; founding member, Kowloon Rotary Club; founder, Society of Boys’ Centers 香港扶幼會 (1953); honor: O.B.E. (1946), Hon.LL.D., HKU (1968)

Hugh Alderson Fawcett (1928)
Noted Archaeologist and Collector
Qualifications:

d.January 11, 1982; University College, London; Captain, Royal Army Medical Corps (1914-1919); D.P.H. (1920); D.T.M. & H. (1928); M.R.C.S.; Medical Officer in charge of a sexually-transmitted diseases clinic (for men), member of the Sanitary Board (1928-1930); compiled a collection of over 8,000 items of archaeological finds and artifacts from the British Isles, Europe, the Mediterranean, Far East and America; the collection was purchased by the City of Bristol Museum and Art Gallery (1979); publication: Diphtheria: Its Causation, Prevention and Investigation (April 1923)

Arthur Robartes Wellington (1929)
Qualifications:

Director of Medical and Sanitary Services (known as Principal Civil Medical Officer before 1929)(1929-1936); Director of Medical Services (known as Director of Medical and Sanitary Services before 1936)(1936-1938)

Douglas Laing 梁德基 (1928)
Big time owner of racing-horses
Qualifications:

M.B., B.S. (1928), Hon. Fellow (December 2, 1999, posthumous), HKU; Assistant to Government Bicteriologist (1929-1930); studied otorhinolaryngology in the United kingdom; started a private practice (1934) (according to a HKU site Dr. Laing became the first ENT surgeon in Hong Kong, but the fact is Dr. Chau Sik-nin, also a HKU graduate and an Otolaryngologist, pracitced in Hong Kong in 1927, seven years earlier than Dr. Laing); served in the Royal Army Medical Corps in India during WWII; re-start private practive after the war (1948), his consulting-room in the 1960s was located inside the Gloucester Building, Central, Tel. 30635; Honorary Clinical Lecturer in Otorhinolaryngology, HKU; founder of Digby Memorial Fund (1959) to provide scholarships and gold medals to outstanding medical students; Senior Founding Member, HKU Foundation for Educational Development and Research; donated more than HK$3 milion to HKU including the funding used to build the new Medical Complex at Sassoon Road; retired (1996); a consultant for the Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital, Nethersole Hospitals and Nam Long Hospital; President, Welfare League (founded in 1930); Member of the Executive Committee, Hong Kong Anti-Cancer Society; Steward, Honorary Steward (1984), Royal Hong Kong Jockey Club; publications: Prognostic significance in early diagnosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma by Douglas Laing (Unknown Binding - 1965), Nasopharyngeal carcinoma in the Chinese in Hong Kong by Douglas Laing (Unknown Binding - 1967)
Dr. Laing’s reputation as a racehorse owner was well-known amongst the horseracing fans in Hong Kong. According to HKU information, which refers to records of the Hong Kong Jockey Club, Dr. Laing owned his first horse as early as in 1927. I do not know how credible that is as he hadn’t finished university in 1927. I learn that his horses are quite popular, although I was unable to find all the corresponding names of the horses in English; here they are: Gay Eighties 快樂八十, Gay Nineties 快樂九十, 快樂一百, 快樂王子, 快樂龍王, 快樂飛馬, 快樂飛俠
Wang Chung-ching (1920)
Qualifications:

Honorary Secretary and Treasurer, HKCMA (1920)

Woo Tin-pao 吳天保 (1922)
Vice Qualifications:

Vice President, HKCMA (1922)

T.C. Wong (1924)
Qualifications:

Wong was elected to the office of Honorary Secretary and Treasurer of the HKCMA in 1924. He sat on the Midwives Board from 1933 till 1939 and again in 1946.

S.C. Au (1925)
Qualifications:

Au was elected to the offcie of Vice President of the HKCMA in 1925.

T.T. Mok (1925)
Qualifications:

Mok was elcted to the office of Honorary Secretary and Treasurer of the HKCMA in 1925.

F.I. Tseung (1927)
Qualifications:

Tseung was elected to the office of Honorary Secretary and Treasurer of HKCMA in 1927 and 1929. He became Vice President in 1934. He sat on the Medical Board between 1930 and 1936, and in the Nutrition Advisory Council (years unknown).

K.Y. Li (1928)
Qualifications:

Li was elected to the office of Honorary Secretary and Treasurer of the HKCMA in 1928 and again in 1932.

Phoon Seck-wah 潘錫華 (1929)
Qualifications:

Phoon was elected to the office of Vice President of the HKCMA in 1929. He sat on the Midwives Board between 1930 and 1933, and on the Dental Board (years unknown).

Keisho Kiyohara 清原 慶松[1] (1925)
Qualifications: Igakushi 医学士 (Bachelor of Medicine), Imperial University of Tokyo

(Updated on November 15, 2012) Kiyohara became qualified to practice in Hong Kong on March 30, 1925. He gave an address of 3/F, No.3, Wood Road, Wanchai 灣仔活道.
[1] I was unable to identify the correct kanji of Kiyohara's given name; according to the romaji “Keisho”, he name could also be 清原 敬章or 清原 敬正.
Reference: The Hong Kong Government Gazette, January 3, 1930, Notice #11

William Innes Gerrard (1929)
Qualifications: M.D.; M.R.C.P., London: D.P.H.
Honor: Order of St. Anne, 3rd Class, Russia (November 18, 1915); O.B.E. (1930); C.B.E Military (June 14, 1945); Chinese Order of the Brilliant Jade (ROC)

(Updated on November 15, 2012) Gerrard was appointed Honorary Visiting Physician to the Government Civil Hospital on October 10, 1929. It was in this same year that he began a lengthy association with HKU: Professor of Medicine from 1929 to 1939; Dean of the Faculty of Medicine in 1933 succeeding L.D. Ride and; Emeritus Professor in 1950.

References:
- Dix Noonan Webb [internet].
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, January 24, 1930, Appointment #50.
- Naval History / #29373: November 19, 1915 [internet].
- Supplement to the London Gazette, January 1, 1930; June 14, 1945.

Au King 區警 (1929)
Qualifications: M.B., B.S., HKU (May 1929)

Au became qualified to practice in Hong Kong, e.dt. June 28, 1929. He gave an address at 41, Kaiyan Road, Kowloon City. He was Assistant Health Officer for Schools, Medical Department, e.dt.unk. He was appointed Inspector of School, e.dt. September 7, 1932; and  again e.dt. May 2, 1941.

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, July 5, 1929, Notice #352; September 23, 1932, Appointment #603; May 9, 1941, Appointment #552.

1930s

George H. Gell
Qualifications:

Gell worked at the Government Civil Hospital in unknown capacity and during an unknown period of time.

References:
Janus: Jardine Matheson Archive [internet].

Li Sheung-po (1931)
Qualifications:

(Updated on February 23, 2013) Oddly, all I have for Li is a news article of him as a victim of an armed robbery, here goes:
Victim of Armed Robbery.
Chinese Doctor Held Up at Revolver Point.
Belated Report.
A Chinese doctor, Li Sheung-po, was the victim of an armed robbery on the third floor of 44. Sai Street at four o'clock yesterday afternoon
References
- China Mail, Hong Kong, April 13, 1931


The Tai Brothers

Were Hon-hang, Hon-sham and Hon-fan triplets? Well, they went to the same school to read medicine, and graduated almost at the same year 1932/33. They returned to Hong Kong to pratice after obtaining the same medical qualifications, and were appointed by the government as health officers. Hello, Dr. Tai, Dr. Tai and Dr. Tai...

Tai Hon-hang 戴翰鏗 (1933)
Qualifications: M.B., B.S., University of Edinburgh (December 16, 1932)

Tai became qualified to practice in Hong Kong, e.date February, 8 1933. He and his brother Tai Ho-fan were both listed as Temporary Medical Officer in 1938.He was appointed Health officer, e.dt. January 1, 1939.

References:
- Annual Medical Report for the Year 1938, Hong Kong Government.
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, February 19, 1933, Notice #84; January 6, 1939, Notice #14.

Tai Hon-sham 戴翰琛 (1933)
Qualifications: M.B., B.S., University of Edinburgh (1932)
Tai was listed as temporary Medical Office in 1938, he gave an address at #2/F, 22, Robinson Road. He was appointed Inspector of Schools, e.dt. October 3, 1940. He was appointed again to the position in 1941.

References:
- Annual Medical Report for the Year 1938, Hong Kong Government.
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, October 18, 1940, Appointment #1147; May 9, 1941, Appointment #552.

Tai Hon-fan 戴翰芬 (1934)
Qualifications: M.B., B.S., University of Edinburgh (1933)

Tai became qualified to practice in Hong Kong, e.dt. February 19, 1934. He gave an address at #36, Queen's Road, Central in that year. He and his brother Tai Ho-hang were both listed as Temporary Medical Officer in 1938.

References:
- Annual Medical Report for the Year 1938, Hong Kong Government.
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, February 23, 1934, Notice #125.


R.A. Anderson (1933)
Qualifications:

R.A. Anderson was appointed Lecturer in Public Health at HKU (1933-1935).

T.F. Kennedy (1935)
Qualifications:

T.F. Kennedy was appointed Lecturer in Public Health at HKU (1935-1936).

L.J. Davis (1930)
Qualifications:

M.D., University of Glasgow; M.R.C.P., F.R.C.P., Edinburgh; Professor of Pathology, HKU (1930-1939); Muirhead Professor of Medicine, University of Glasgow (1954); Professor of Medicine, Royal Infirmary, Glasgow, 1960; publications: Scarlatina Immunity in Hong Kong (1935, co-authors - J.S. Guzdar and F.S. Fernando)

Sze Tsung-sing 施正信 (1933)
The first Chinese WHO Medical Officer
Qualifications:

b. January 23, 1909 Shanghai; graduated from Medhurst College 麥倫書院, Shanghai (1924); enrolled in the Peking Union Medical College 協和醫學院 (1924) but did not attend college due to out break of civil war; admitted to HKU with two scholarships (1925) for a six year medical program; M.B., B.S. (1931), Hon. D.Soc.Sc. (1997), HKU; D.T.M.&H. (1936), D.P.H. (1937), University of London; Dr.P.H. (1938), Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health; Surgical Assistant (1931), Resident Internal Medicine (June to December, 1931), Hong Kong Government Civil Hospital; went to Shanghai to provide medical relief service (January to February, 1932); Assistant Resident Internal Medicine, Peking Union Hospital (1932-1933); Assistant in Medicine, HKU (1933-1935); while in London in 1936, went to Berlin and served as the ROC team physician at the Eleventh Olympic Games; general staff, HQ, Chinese Red Cross Medical Relief Corps. (1938- August 1942); Professor and Chair of Department, Public Health, Guiyang Medical College (1944); Head of Medical and Health Agency, Guiyang (1944); Head of Health Department, Guizhou (1945); Head of National Health Agency (1946), based in Nanjing; Head of Healthcare Department under the National Health Ministry (1947); Professor, Social Medicine, HKU (1950-1952), the department was established in 1950 with Prof. Sze as its first professor, also Prof. Sze was the first HKU graduate to be offered a professorship; Medical Officer, Social and Occupational Health, World Health Organization (July 1952-1966), based in Geneva; resigned from WHO (1966) after being accused of being a threat to the national security of Switzerland and was named persona non grata by the Swiss Government; returned to China in 1966 and was caught up in the Cultural Revolution; Foreign Affairs Department, Ministry of Health (1972-1975); Executive Director (1975), Vice President (1980), China Medical Association; founded the China Medical Journal, China’s first technical journal in English; member, National Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (1978-1987); married to Wang Chunjing 王春菁 (February 2, 1941); Photo caption: October 1953 photo of Professor and Mrs. Sze (second right) at a WHO reception


Li Shu-pui 李樹培 (1932)
The first HKU graduate to be admitted to the Royal College of Surgeons
Qualifications:

Li Shu-pui
b. January 1903 Hong Kong – d. August 31, 2005 Hong Kong, at the age of 102; entered Peking Union Medical College (1920) at the age of seventeen, later transferred to HKU; M.B., B.S., HKU (1928); F.R.C.S., University of Edinburgh, and became the first HKU graduate to attain admission to R.C.S.; studied ear, nose and throat at University of Vienna; joined the practice of Dr. Li Shu-fan in Hong Kong (c.1932); continued performing surgical operations until 1980 and ran an outpatient clinic until well into his 90s; Medical Superintendent, Hong Kong Sanatorium and Hospital (1966, following the death of Dr. Li Shu-fan), remained actively involved in the affairs of the hospital as chairman of the board until his death; during Dr. Li’s tenure as M.S. an vitro fertilization centre was added where Hong Kong’s first test tube baby was delivered; founding member (1965), Treasurer (1965-1979) Federation of Medical Societies of Hong Kong; honor: O.B.E.; married to Ellen Li 李曹秀群 (b.1908 Shanghai - d.2005 Hong Kong), who was the first woman Justice of the Peace, the first woman member of the Legislative Council and the first woman recipient of C.B.E. in Hong Kong

Pang Hok-ko 彭學高 (1934)
Qualifications:

b.1900 Hong Kong - d.1974 Hong Kong; Christian; M.B.B.S., University of Hong Kong (1929); private practice (1934-1972), in Yaumati district, Kowloon; President, Hong Kong Medical Association (1952-53); naming honor: Rhenish Church Pang Hok Ko Memorial Collage 禮賢會彭學高紀念中學; father of Dr. Pang Wing-fuk 彭永福 (M.B.B.S., HKU, 1962; M.R.C.P., 1966, F.R.C.P., University of Edinburgh; F.H.K.A.M., Medicine; D.T.M.& H., University of Liverpool) and Dr. Pang Wing-luk 彭永祿 (M.B.B.S., HKU, 1966). (Dr. Pang was my parents’ physician, his son Dr. Pang Wing Fuk is still taking care of my mother)

Yang Pao-chang (1934)
Qualifications: M.B., B.S., HKU (July 26, 1929)

Yang became qualified to practice in Hong Kong, e.dt. February 19, 1934, he gave an address c/o Dr. N.K. Law, #57, Wyndham Street.

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, February 23, 1934, Notice #125.

George Duncan Ralph Black (1923)
Qualifications:

(Updated on November 19, 2012) M.B., C.M., Trinity College, University of Toronto (1905); member, British Medical Association (1908); President, British Medical Association, Hong Kong and China Branch (1934-1936); member of the Medical Board (1923-1925); member of the Dental Board (1923); President (1925-1926, 1939-1940), Hong Kong St. Andrew's Society; Major, Royal Army Medical Corps (1941); Surgeon Lieutenant (appointed on January 30, 1912), Principal Medical Officer, Lieut.-Col., Hong Kong Volunteer Defense Corps (HKVDC), in charge of a temporary military hospital established at the beginning of the Battle of Hong Kong in 1941 inside St. Stephen’s College in Stanley; killed by Japanese troop storming the hospital in the early morning of Christmas Day, 1941; honors: O.B.E., Military Division (1935), V.D. (Volunteers Decoration); wife, Anne Lilian (nurse ND14) and daughter (nurse ND6) served in the Nursing Detachment during the war.

References:
The Hong Kong Government Gazette, February 9, 1912, Appointment #39; March 16, 1923, Appointment #113; May 18, 1923, Appointment #235.

Ling Ke Dieh 林開弟 (1935)
Qualifications:

M.B.B.S., HKU (1932); Assistant (Lecturer) in Physiology, HKU (1935-1938); Nanjing Renji Hospital 南京仁濟醫院; Medical Superintendent (c.1949), Kwong Wah Hospital 廣華醫院 (a part of the Tung Wah Hospitals); President (1958), Lai Chi Kok Hospital 荔枝角醫院 (1960s); Council (1972), Hong Kong Medical Association

Eva Ho-tung 何嫻姿 (1937)
The first woman graduate in Medicine, HKU
Qualifications:

Eva Ho-tung
Alias 何綺華; daughter of Robert Ho-tung and Clara Lin-kok Cheung; attended the Diocesan Girls' School; M.B., B.S., HKU (1927), and became the first woman graduate from the Faculty of Medicine, HKU; D.G.O., University of Dublin (1928); D.T.M.&H., London University; M.R.C.P.I.; Assistant in Obstetrics and Gynecology, HKU (1937-1938); served in the Red Cross Medical Relief Corps. in China, commanded a unit in the field; Dr. Ho-tung’s practice in the 1960s was located on the first floor of the Bank of East Asia Building, Central, Tel: 25925

Chan Pak-chue 陳伯賜 (1937)
Qualifications: M.C.P & S., Manitoba (October 12, 1937)

Chan became qualified to practice in Hong Kong, e.dt. December 29, 1937. He gave an address at #7, Victory Avenue, Ho Man Tin in the year.

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, December 31, 1937, Notice #952.

Horacio Percy Luis Ozorio (1937)
Qualifications: M.B., B.S., HKU (December 17, 1937)

Ozorio became qualified to practice in Hong Kong, e.dt. December 29, 1937. He gave an address at #41, Granville Road, Kowloon.

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, December 31, 1937, Notice #952.

Yang Ke 楊珂 (1937)
Qualifications: M.B., B.S., HKU (December 20, 1937)

Yang became qualified to practice in Hong Kong, e.dt. December 29, 1937. He gave an address at 2/F, #47, Bonham Road

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, December 31, 1937, Notice #952.

Ooi Kee Wan 黄基遠 (1937)
Qualifications: M.B., B.S., HKU (December 29, 1937)

Ooi became qualified to practice in Hong Kong, e.dt. December 29, 1937. He gave an address at Red House, Pokfulam

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, December 31, 1937, Notice #952.

Lydia Fehily (1939)
Qualifications: M.D., Vienna; State Medical Diploma, Japan

(Updated on November 14, 2012) Fehily was appointed an Inspecor of Schools on May 25, 1939.

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, June 23, 1939, appointments #500.


Alta Francis Stout (1939)
Qualifications: M.B., Ch.B., University of Edinburgh

(Updated on November 14, 2012) Stout was probably a woman. She resigned in 1939 from the position of Supervisor of Midwives. That's about all I know of Stout.

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, June 23, 1939, appointments #501.


Lai Po-cheun 賴寶川 (1939)
The first woman medical student, HKU
Qualifications: M.B., B.S., HKU

(Updated on December 2, 2012) Lai was one of the first three women students admitted to HKU [1] and the only one to read medicine. That was in 1921, one year ahead of Eva Ho-tung 何嫻姿, yet it was Ho-tung, not Lai, who became the first medical student to graduate. In fact, I am still looking to find in which year she finished school. The only records of her I could find were from the year 1939, there she unquestionably was on the favorite list of someone important in the government. She was appointed, in the same instance on May 25, 1939, a Health Officer, the secretary of the Midwives Board and Supervisor of Midwives (to replace Alta Francis Stout who had resigned), and an Inspector of Schools. She was listed as Chinese Lady Assistant Medical Officer for Schools, Medical Department in 1941, and was again appointed as Inspector of Schools.
[1] The other two were Rachel Mary Irving 艾惠珠 and Irene Cheng 何奇姿. Irving was the daughter Edward Alexander Irving 伊榮 who was the sitting (and Hong Kong's first) Director of Education. Irving was admitted to the Faculty of Art, year three, and graduated with a BA degree in 1923. She was Hong Kong's first woman university graduate. Cheng (b. October 21, 904, Hong Kong – d. February 17, 2007, San Diego), nee Ho-tung, was Eva Ho-tung's sister. Cheng received her BA degree in English in 1925 and was the first Hong Kong-born woman university graduate. She went on to become a devoted educator.
References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, June 23, 1939, appointments #501, #502 and #503; May 9, 1941, Appointment #52.
- Lee Hock Guan (Ed.) and Lee Lai To (Ed.), Sun Ya-sen: Nanyang and the 1911 Revolution, Singapore: Institute of Southeast Asia Studies, 2011.
- Lee, Vicky, Being Eurasian: Memories Across Racial Divides, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2004.

Peter Selwyn Selwyn-Clarke (1938)
Director of Medical Services (1938-1941)
Qualifications:


Lim Ek-quee 林益桂 (1938)
Qualifications:

M.B.B.S., HKU (1932); Assistant Lecturer in Physiology (1938-1941), temporarily put in charge of the Department of Physiology (1940), HKU


Jean Eugene Frommer (1939)
Qualifications: M.D., Uinversity of Pisa, Italy (November 17, 1934)

(Updated on February 26, 2013) Frommer became qualified to practice in Hong Kong on August 17, 1939. He gave an address c/o Mrs. Frommer, Canossian Hospital, #36, Caine Road.

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, August 18, 1939, Notice #679.


Irma Frommer (1939)
Qualifications: M.D., Bologna (July 3, 1937)

(Updated on February 26, 2013) Frommer, nee Edelmann, became qualified to practice in Hong Kong on October 25, 1939. She gave an address at 1/F, #36, Hillwood Road, Kowloon. She was initially engaged by the Canossian Hospital. She was appointed Lady Medical Officer for Schools, Medical Department, and Inspector of Schools on May 2, 1941.

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, October 27, 1939, Notice #994; May 9, 1941, Appointment #552.

Philip Wen Cee Mao 毛文奇 (1939)
A prominent Asian art collector
Qualifications: M.B., B.S., HKU (1938); F.R.C.S., University of Edinburgh (ca.1947)

Philip Moore
(Updated February 24, 2013) Mao, alias Philip Moore, (b. September 5, 1915, Shanghai – d. 2004, Hong Kong) was the son of a Chinese doctor who practiced in Hawaii. Mao's mother at the time when married to his father was an art student studying in Japan. When attending an English public school in Shanghai, Mao anglicized his surname to Moore (I'll find out the reason for that when I have time). Soon after graduating from HKU, he joined the Chinese Red Cross Relief Corps and went to China to work in the war zones, returning to Hong Kong after the city has fallen to the Japanese. Altogether Mao was with the Red Cross for 6 years (1939-1945). He worked for HKU as resident in Queen Mary Hospital and later at Kowloon Hospital (1950-1955). Thereafter he started his own private practice and finally retired in 1980s. He was a founding member of the Society of Anesthetists of Hong Kong and was elected President of HKCMA (1960-1962).

Mao had a profound interest in Aisan art and has beccome a  prominent collector as well as a scholar in that field. His enthusiasm was clearly manifested by his involvement in the leading organizations promoting Asian art and history: member, Oriental Ceramic Society in London (since 1965); founding President, Oriental Ceramic Society of Hong Kong (1974-1977), ; Honorary Advisor, Hong Kong Museum of Art (1974-2004); Chairman, Min Chiu Society 敏求精舍(1969-1971, 1974-1975); Founder and first Chairman (1980-1997), Chairman emeritus (since 1997), East Asian History of Science Foundation 香港東亞科學史基金會.

Mao married Barbara Chu (1940) who became a leading gynecologist in Hong Kong and was appointed an examiner for gynecology in HKU.

Robert Cecil Robertson (1939)
Qualifications:

b. December 16, 1889 Kilmarnock - d. August 4, 1942 Hong Kong; son of a glass merchant; M.B., Ch.B., Glasgow University (1914); Captain (temporary commission), R.A.M.C. during WWI and gained a Military Cross; M.R.C.P., D.P.H. (1919), Edinburgh; F.R.F.P.S. (1920); M.D., Glasgow University (1921); Assistant Pathologist, Shanghai Health Department (1925); Henry Lester Research Institute, Shanghai (1929), Head of Division of Pathology; Commissioner, League of Nations anti-epidemic unit No.2 (1930s); President, Shanghai Medical Society;  Professor and head of Pathology Department, professor of bacteriology and pharmacology, University of Hong Kong (1939-1942), succeeding Professor L.J. Davies; held in internment by the Japanese army after the Battle of Hong Kong in the Bacteriological Institute; said to have took his life by jumping from the roof of the Institute on August 4, 1942; member, British Medical Association (1917-1942); gifted painter and photographer; photo on the left: Soochow Watergate, by R.C. Robertson, oil on canvas

Dr. Robrtson cheated death twice in Shanghai. The second time was in August 1937, when KMT army attacked the Japanese flagship in Shanghai and bombs fell disastrously in the International Settlement. Dr. Robertson was officially reported among the 2,000 dead, but his families in Scotland later received a cablegram from him bearing the single word "unharmed". The first incident took place three year earlier and was reported in detail in the British Medical Journal dated March 17, 1934:

All in the Day's Work - Details have now reached this country, through the columns of the Shanghai Times, of the kidnapping and escape from death of Dr. R. Cecil Robertson, head of the division of pathology and bacteriology of the Henry Lester Institute of Medical Research, Shanghai, and a member of the British Medical Association. On January 31st Dr. Robertson left his home in his car for the institute with his chauffeur and the 8-year-old son of his Chinese cook, who was to be vaccinated

Dr. Robertson put up a fierce fight, during which he was twice shot at; appeals for help to Chinese police and bystanders were ignored. Dr. Robertson explained who he was, and his captors appeared surprised and disappointed, but the car continued its course. Resuming the struggle, one of the Chinese was wounded in the hand by his own revolver, the speed of the car slackened, and Dr. Robertson forced open the car door and jumped out, holding the boy. His captors made no further attack upon him, but drove off rapidly and escaped. Dr. Robertson, who is president of the Shanghai Medical Society, owed his life to the failure of a revolver to fire when in contact with his head. He ascribes the incident to an error on the part of the gangsters, who had presumably proposed – to carry off a wealthy Chinese, but mistook the car. He was twice wounded in the war in France, and was awarded the M.C. He went out to Shanghai in 1925, and was at first pathologist to the Shanghai Municipal Council, joining the Henry Lester Institute in 1929.
The Clandestine Degree Ceremony, HKU


The University Senate decided, at a meeting on December 31, 1941, to confer degrees in medicine on the students, whose examinations were interrupted by the Japanese invasion of Hong Kong. This is a photo taken on New Year’s Day 1942 behind Eliot Hall after the clandestine degree ceremony. I was able to tag five perosns in the photo:
1. Professor Robertson
2. Gordon King, Dean, Faculty of Medicine
3. Duncan Sloss, Vice-Chancellor
4. Professor Kenelm Digby, Professor of Surgery
5. Hilda Chan Tse-kau, student
The newly graduated, all with the M.B., B.S. degrees, were:
Hilda Chan Tse-kau 陳自求; a record in 1960s showed that she practiced at No.229, Nathan Rd., Ground Floor, Kowloon, tel 59053.
Chan Ping-kwok
Chow Cham-lau 周湛鑾; a record showed that he practiced at No. 22, Des Voeux Rd., C., Hong Kong, tel 22847.
Lau Po-hei 劉寶希; a record showed that he practiced at No.55, Bonham Road, Hong Kong, tel 32000
Lee Ching-Iu
Leong Lean-sang
Ong Hian-pitt. Ong escaped to India and then his native Indonesia where he prepared for the re-occupation by the Dutch forces
Ling Sing-hang
E.N. Orloff (posthumous), Orloff died defending Hong Kong before his graduation
Soon Cheng-hoe
Wong Ching-kuen 黃呈權; a record showed that he worked at the Tung Wah Eastern Hospital in the 1960s

Li Tsoo-yiu 李祖佑 (1932)
Qualifications:

President, HKCMA (1932)

S.C. Chan (1932)
Qualifications:

Honorary Secretary and Treasurer, HKCMA (1932)

Martha Hoabing (1933)
Qualifications:

Honorary Secretary and Treasurer, HKCMA (1933)

K.D. Ling (1934)
Qualifications:

Honorary Secretary and Treasurer, HKCMA (1934)

T.C. Wong (1935)
Qualifications:

Honorary Secretary and Treasurer, HKCMA (1935)

Chan Ping-in (1936)
Qualifications:

Honorary Secretary and Treasurer, HKCMA (1936)

T.K. Lien (1937)
Qualifications:

Vice President HKCMA (1937)

Edward Wickham Jueyow Sun 孫潤焜 (1937)
Qualifications:

Honorary Secretary and Treasurer (1937), President (1940,1941) HKCMA

T.P. Wu (1939)
Qualifications:

Honorary Secretary and Treasurer, HKCMA (1939)

1940s

N.C. McLeod
Qualifications:

N.C. McLeod was Deputy Director of Medical and Health Services. He was appointed part-time chair of Public Health at HKU (1941-1945).

H.C. Chan
Qualifications:

Chan was elected to the office of Honorary Secretary and Treasurer of the HKCMA in 1940 and 1941. He sat on the Medical Advisory Board to the Governor (years unknown).



The Pioneer Medical and Pharmacy Practices:

The Medical Hall (1853-1914)
A German-owned pharmacy

Harold von Kauffman (d.May 1891 Wiesbaden), proprietor, established the Medical Hall in 1853 at a central location on Queen’s Road. Dr. Kauffman married a Spanish woman, Emelda Manuela. When he left Hong Kong in 1873 with his wife and four children, the Medical Hall was left to the management of a relative Theophile Koffer [1]. Emil Niehardt joined the pharmacy in 1890 in the capacity of the chemist and became the proprietor upon the departure of Koffer. Niehardt left in 1913 after forty one years in Hong Kong. In 1897, H. Kammel, an apothecary, was admitted as a partner. By 1914, all German business concerns were treated as enemy alien properties and faced liquidations. At the time when the Medical Hall was liquidated, it was situated on Ice House Street opposite the King Edward Hotel and under the management of two pharmaceutical chemists -- A. Kucy and W. Kornetz.

[1] It is rather comical to note the piece of news I found concerning Theophile Koffer 130 years later was written in the June 22, 1882 issue of The Daily Press, which said Koffer was fined $2 by the Police Court for obstructing the passengers on Stanley Street on June 19. He placed and left 17 barrels and 5 baskets on the sidewalk.
References:
- The Daily Press, Police Court, Obstruction, Hong Kong, Thursday, June 22, 1882.

The Medical Hall
Probably a Portuguese-owned pharmacy

Under the same name as the German pharmacy practice, this one was listed in the 1859 Hong Kong Directory. All the persons listed associated with it had names that sound Portuguese: J.J. Braga. C. Braga, Vicente Barga, Joao L. Britto, Francisco da Roza and J. Jesus. Judging from the fact that there were several Bargas, it could be a family-owned business, and most probably a pharmacy practice rather than a medical clinic.

Drs. Gregory Paul Jordan and W.S. Adams (ca.1884 - present day)
A medical practice that would evolve into Drs. Anderson & Partners

Twenty-seven years old Dr. Jordan arrived in Hong Kong in c.1884 and entered into partnership with Dr. Adams who at that time also held the position of Port Health Officer. Dr. Friedrich Piers Grone, L.R.C.P. (1901), registered in Hong Kong in 1906 to practice as a medical doctor. He joined the firm of Drs. Jordan and Adams. At the time of the First World War, Dr. Grone changed his name, which was German sounding, to Frederick Pierce Grove and served with the British Army. He died in May 1929 in Hong Kong aged fifty five.

Muller and Justi, Surgeons and Doctors of Medicine (1900-c.1914)

The medical practice was first located at the Bank Building, No. 16 Queen's Road Central (the present location of the New World Tower), in the office that was previously the clinic of Dr. Erich Hermann Paulun who moved to Shanghai in 1899. In 1905 they moved to the Hotel Mansions Building (the present location of the Chater House), newly built on reclaimed land in Central. The firm was established by Oscar Muller (b.May 4, 1873), surgeon, a graduate of the University of Munich. He qualified in 1897, and was registered as a medical practitioner in Hong Kong on November 2, 1900. Dr. Carol Justi (b. March 3, 1873) joined Dr. Muller in 1903. He was a graduate of the University of Marburg and qualified to practice in Germany in 1897. He left Hong Kong in 1913. Other members of the firm included Karl Hoch (joined in 1907), a graduate of University of Kiel and qualified in 1904; Theodore van Wezel (joined in 1912) who received his medical education at the University of Freiburg and qualified in Germany in 1905. Dr. Muller was a member of the German Club Germania, the predecessor of the German Club. I have no information on the fate of this medical practice came 1914 where almost all German businesses were forced to liquidate.

The Edward Dispensary (1910s)

The Edward Dispensary was situated at 62A, Queen's Road. It was owned and run by C. Kamming & Co., Ltd., a firm established in Hong Kong on January 15, 1910 and dissolved on July 29, 1986. There probably was a Mr. (or Dr.) C. Kamming somewhere, but the information of which has not surfaced.

References:
- The China Mail, Hong Kong: March 13, 1913.
- hongkong-companies-com [internet].

Drs. Black, Balean, Skinn & Talbot (1930s)
Union Building



The Case of Susan Lobina Lamb:
Lamb or Lam? Doctor or no Doctor?

Ms. Lamb (she is definitely a medical practitioner, but there is no actual reference to her being a doctor from materials I have been through) of the American Board Mission was charged in 1910 with violating the Medical Registration Ordinance, 1844 (Ordinance #6 of 1844, enacted on April 2, 1884) by practicing without being registered. Specifically, she had attended a Portuguese woman who subsequently died. Lamb was an American who was identified as being of Anglo-Saxon descent. In her defense, she claimed exemption from the ordinance on account of having married a Chinese (whose name is Lam), and thus taken his nationality. In other words, she claimed to be a Chinese medical practitioner and therefore not required to be registered as stipulated in Clause 2 of the 1884 ordinance.
Clause 2
This Ordinance shall not operate to limit the right of Chinese practitioners to practice medicine or surgery or to receive demand or recover reasonable charges in respect of such practice.
The material I went though says not whether Susan L. Lam, nee Lamb, won the court case. But, judging from a later revision (I found it in Ordinance #31 of 1914, but the revision might occur earlier than 1914) of the ordinance in the relevant provision, I say she did.
Clause 3.1
Nothing in this Ordinance shall be deemed to affect the right of any Chinese person to practice medicine or surgery according to any Chinese methods and to demand and recover reasonable charges in respect of such practice; provided that such person does not take or use any name, title or addition calculated to induce any one to believe that he is qualified to practice medicine or surgery according to modern scientific methods.



Brtish Medical Association Hong Kong and China Branch

Office-bearers for 1907-8:

G. M. Harston (Hong Kong) – President (President, The Royal Society of St. George, Hong Kong, 1925-6; Member of the General Committee, The British Journal of Ophthalmology, 1931)
W. V. M. Koch (Hong Kong) – Vice President
James Herbert Sanders (Hong Kong) - Honorary Secretary and Treasurer (Medical Superintendent, Matilda Hospital; d.May 16, 1956 Devon)
John Milfred Atkinson – Council
Gregory Paul Jordan – Council
Frederic Osmund Stedman – Council
Staff Surgeon R.T. Gilmore, Royal Navy - Council
Captain Rankin, Royal Army Medical Corps. – Council

I noted there actually was no one from China, although there ought to be British physicians working in China in around 1907.



The Boys from Penn

Where Scots dominated the domains of medicine and surgery, American took dentistry. Dr. Joseph W. Noble, notably was the second dentist to practice in Hong Kong (1887) as well as the second to have come from America. A graduate (1883) of the University of Pennsylvania, Dr. Noble ran a flourishing dentistry practice, located at the Alexandra Building in Central, where he went on hiring fellow alumni from Penn as associates, and here are several names I could find: Drs. John M. Crago and Leidy R. Reel (both from the class of 1900) and Dr. Edward Evan Jones. Dr. Emerson G. Curry (class of 1904) went to join Dr. Noble in Hong Kong after he sold his extensive practice in Plainfield, New Jersey. What I couldn’t ascertain is whether Dr. Herbert Poate, who was Dr. Noble’s original partner, was still around when the firm was filled with the boys from Penn.

There was a Dr. Frederick Hoard Kew (class of 1903) who practiced at 39 Queen’s Road (and later moved to the Alexandra Building), and who I theorize was one of Dr. Noble’s recruits from his alma mater, under the name of Drs. Kew Brothers. I was unable to find information of the other Dr. Kew, but found the name of a Dr. George T. Lemis (class of 1905) who joined the Kew Bros. So you see there were plentiful of American dentists in Hong Kong at the turn of the twentieth century.

Dr. Leidy R. Reel did not stay long in Hong Kong and returned to Pennsylvania to practice where his name was shown as the President of the Dental Society in the Scranton District (1919, 1920). To go back in time a bid, an 1890 census in Scranton showed a Leidy R. Reed who resided at 1128 Blair Avenue and whose occupation was a clerk

Dr. Emerson G. Curry lived and worked in Woodstock, Ontario where he married Canadian Winnifred Sellery before moving to New Jersey. Dr. Curry apparently was quite successful with his practice that he became the owner of a country estate in New Vernon, NJ, comprising 114 acres of farm land. As the information concerning the country estate was undated I can only assume that this happened after his stint in Hong Kong.



From the Land of Sakura
(Updated on April 18, 2013)

This is a feature about medical personnel from Japan, or those who were trained in Japan or had other relations with the land of sakura. I found this to be interesting since, surely due to my own ignorance, I didn't even know they existed in Hong Kong in this particular period of time; and secondly because I am interested in all things Japanese, a habit I have grown into after having lived there for more than 16 years.

Doctors from Japan

Kyushu Imperial University 九州帝國大学 (present day Kyushu University)
- Suegoro Hara,  probably 原 末五郎, Igakushi (1911); he gave an address at 10, Ashley Road, Kowloon in 1939.

Tokyo Imperial University 東京帝國大學 (present day Tokyo University)
- Keisho Kiyohara 清原 慶松 or 清原 敬章or 清原 敬正, Igakushi (1925)
- Munehiro Jungo (this seems odd as Munehiro and Jungo are both commonly adopted given names, not surname), Igakushi (1938)

Hong Kong doctors with a medical degree from Japan

Igakuhakashi 医学博士 (M.D.)

Tokyo Imperial University 東京帝國大學 (present day Tokyo University)
- Wong Tung-ming 王通明 (1929)

Igakushi 医学士 (M.B.)

Aichi Medical College 愛知医学校 (present day Nagoya University)
- Mah Sau-shan (1921)

Chiba Medical College 千葉医科大学 (present day Chiba University School of Medicine)
- Wong Yu-lung 黄裕綸 (1929), Lee Ten-yu 李天祐 (1937)

Kyoto Imperial University 京都帝國大學 (present day Kyoto University)
- Chen Li-tsieh 陳禮節 (1936)

Kyushu Imperial University 九州帝國大学 (present day Kyushu University)
- Lau Nam-chu 柳南柱 (1919)
- So Ping-lun 蘇炳麟 (1919)
- Young Tse-sheung 楊子驤 (1923)
- Young Tsze-tow 楊子韜 (1923)
- Tam Tai-tong 譚大同 (1924)
- Cheung Siu-cheong 莊兆祥 (1931)

Nagasaki Medical College 長崎医科大学 (present day Faculty of Medicine, University of Nagasaki) - Chan Chin-kwong 陳覲光 (1932)
- Lo Chi-fai 羅致徽 (1932)

Nihon Medical Special College
- Hung Men-sau 洪明修 (1919)

Osaka Women's Medical College 大阪女子高等医学専門学校 ( present day Kansai Medical University)
- Tsai Len-hwon 蔡聯歡 (1933)

Tokyo Jikeikai Medical University 東京慈恵会医科大学 (present day a part of the Jikei University 慈恵大学)
- Chan Shek-yuen 陳錫元 (1933)

Tokyo Women Special Medical College 東京女子医学専門学校 (present day Tokyo Women's Medical University)
- So Chik-ching 蘇淑貞 (1915)
- So Yee-ching 蘇儀貞 (1920)
- Yu Siau-dong 虞小棠 (1929)
- Yu Ah-li (So Wah Cheung) 余亞莉 (1937)

Others
Lydia Fehily was said to be a holder of a State Medical Medical Diploma she obtained in Japan on July 8, 1935. I need to find out more about the diploma.
Li Tim-chih 李添枝 and Oh Syun-mei 翁俊明 were both Igakushi (1930) of the Taihoku Imperial University 臺北帝國大學 (present day National Taiwan University) in Taipei.

All the doctors listed above were qualified to practice in Hong Kong in the 1930s.

Japanese Nurses 1910s – 1920s

Japanese nursing staff were hired to work at the Government Civil Hospital in the beginning of 1910s. They gained importance when the shortage of European nurses rapidly increased during and immediately after the Great War. The modus operandi of the hospital administration in mid 1910s was that European nurses would care for European patients only. In 1916, Japanese nurses were put in complete charge of the B Block of the hospital, the so-called Asiatic wards, which had a total of 56 beds. While the Japanese nurses were praised for the quality of their work, there were questions regarding their abilities to communicate in English. The government's rebuttal to the criticism was the naming of three fair English speakers, viz. Mishima, Sakamoto and Tsuchimoto. It seems there was no record that showed exactly how many and from where the Japanese nurses were hired, but I believe they all came from a single institution in Japan. Records I found showed 2 new nurses (unnamed) were hired in 1916 and 3 in 1917, viz. Kawase Sato, Ono Matsu and Ine Hemni. A Japanese interpreter previously hired to assist Japanese patients was let go in 1917 for obvious reason.

By 1921, only eight Japanese nurses remained working for the government, as they were being gradually replaced by local ones. Those whose agreements had expired and had left during the year had included I. Hemni, I. Yamamoto, S. Ebato, M. Yamaguchi and S. Kawamoto. The rest had probably all returned to Japan in the next couple of years.

References:
- The Hong Kong Government Gazette, May 5, 1939, Notice #362.
- Medical and Sanitary Reports for the Year 1917, Hong Kong Government.
- Medical Report for the Year 1921, Hong Kong Government.
- Proceedings of Meeting, the Legislative Council, August 3, 1916; October 5, 1916; October 11, 1917.
- Quarterly Return of Excesses on Sub-Heads Met by Savings Under Heads of Expenditure, for the 3rd Quarter of 1916. Hong Kong Government.



Old-Boy Network
(updated on November 30, 2012)

Year Matriculated - Name, arr./dep. Hong Kong; remarks

University of Aberdeen
1841 - Charles A. Winchester, 1842/1843; govt. (asst. Surg.)
1856 - John I. Murray, 1859/unk.; govt. (Colonial Surg.)
1865 - Patrick Manson
1873 - James Cantlie
1873 - Charles J. Wharry, 1878/1884; govt. (Supt. of Govt. Civil Hosp.)
1879 - Ho Kai, pvt. practice (for a very brief period)
1881 - Frederick T. Keyt, 1902/unk.; govt. (Port Health Ofc.); lect., HKCMC & HKU
1884 - Alexander M. Cowie, unk./unk.; pvt.
unk.  - Alexander Rennie
1897 - William Hunter, 1901/d.1909, Hong Kong; govt. (Dir. of Bacteriological Inst.); lect., HKCMC
1900 - David H. Ainslie, 1905/d.1921, Hong Kong; pvt.; lect., HKCMC
1906 - Wilfred W. Pearse, 1901/unk.; govt. (acting Med. Ofr. of Health); lect., HKCMC & HKU

University of Edinburgh
unk.  - William Harland, 1846/d.1858, Hong Kong; pvt., later govt. (Colonial Surg.) ; Sec, CMCS
unk.  - Thomas B. Watson, 1856/1859; pvt.
unk.  - T.A. Chaldecutt, 1858/unk.; govt. (Colonial Surg.)
1833 - John Enscoe, 1860/d.1863, Hong Kong; pvt.
unk.  - Walter G. Dickson, 1880s/unk.; military doctor
1880 - Gregory P. Jordan, 1880s/unk.; pvt., later govt.(Surg.-Supt. of Police); co-fdr. sec., HKBMA; fdr.cmte mbr., lect., HKCMC; prof., Pro-Vice-Chancellor, acting Chancellor, HKU
ukn.  - Charles Forsyth, 1880s/unk.; pvt.; lect., HKCMC & HKU; mbr., HKU Senate
1888 - James A. Lowson, ca.1891/unk; govt.(MS, Government Civil Hospital)
1892 - John C. Thomson, 1881/unk; pvt., later govt. (Govt. Med. Ofr. and Med. Ofr. of Health to the Kowloon extension); pres., HKBM; sec., treas. & sec., dir. of studies, lect., HKCMC
1893 - Harold Macfarlane, 1903/d.1919, Hong Kong; govt. (Govt. Bacteriologist)
1895 - Wilfred V.M. Koch
1900 - Robert M. Gibson, 1887/1935; pvt.; sec. & treas., dir. of studies, lect, HKCMC; live mbr, HKU Court
1904 - Gerald H.L. Fitzwilliams, 1906/ca.1932; pvt.; lect, HKCMC
1910 - Li Shu-fan; pvt.; mbr, Med. Board; pres., HKCMA
unk.  - Li Shu-pui; pvt.
1947 - Philip Mao Wen-cee; govt. (resident, Queen Mary Hosp.), later pvt.; pres., HKCMA
1966 - Pang Hok-ko, pvt.; pres., HKCMA

University of Glasgow
1835 - George Mackay, 1860/1865; military doctor
1840 - James C. Dempster, 1854/1857; govt. (Colonial Surg.); an army secondment
1843 - John R. Rice, unk./unk./; govt. (Surg. Supt, Govt. Civil Hosp.)
1862 - William S. Adams, 1864/bef.1891; pvt., later govt. (Port Health Ofr.) & back to pvt.
1912 - Daisy A.M. Gale, bef.1918/unk.; govt. (acting Med. Ofr. of Health)
unk.  - L.J. Davis, 1930/1939; prof., HKU
1921 - Robert C. Robertson, 1939/d.1942, Hong Kong; prof., HKU

University of London
1881 - John M. Atkinson, 1887/1912; govt. (Principal Civil Med. Ofr.); coun, HKBMA; lect., HKCMC
1886 - Francis W. Clark, 1895/1922; govt. (Principal Med. Ofr. of Health); lect., HKCMC; dean, prof., HKU
1888 - Frederic O. Stedman, 1890s/unk.; pvt.; coun, HKBMA
1902 - Friedrich P. Grone, 1901/ d.1929, Hong Kong; pvt.
1906 - George M. Harston, 1908/ca.1932; pvt.; pres., HKBMA; lect., HKCMC
1908 - Oswald Marriott, 1902/unk; pvt.; lect., HKCMC and HKU
1908 - Edward L.M. Lobb, 1912/1915; govt. (Surg., Govt. Civil Hosp.); prof., HKU



Office-bearers of the Hong Kong Medical Association (1920-1941)

period / President / Vice President / Hon. Sec. & Treas.

1920-1922 / Wan Man-kai 尹文楷 / Kwan King-leung 關景良 / Wang Chung-ching
1922-1923 / Kwan King-leung 關景良 / Woo Tin-pao 吳天保 / B.C. Wong 黃菖霖
1923-1924 / Jeu Hawk 趙學 / Ho Ko-tsun 何高俊 / Chau Wai-cheung 周懷璋
1924-1925 / Arthur Woo Wai-tak 胡惠德 / B.C. Wong 黃菖霖 / T.C. Wong
1925-1926 / Ho Shai-chuen 何世全 / S.C. Au / T.T. Mok
1926-1927 / Li Shu-fan 李樹芬 / Jeu Hawk 趙學 / Chau Wai-cheung 周懷璋
1927-1928 / Chau Wai-cheung 周懷璋 / Phoon Seck-wah 潘錫華 / F.I. Tseung
1928-1929 / Jeu Hawk 趙學 / Li Shu-fan 李樹芬 / K.Y. Li
1929-1930 / Wong Man 黃雯 / Phoon Seck-wah 潘錫華 / F.I. Tseung
1930-1931 / Wan Yik-shing 尹奕聲 / nil / Wan Yik-shing 尹奕聲
1931-1932 / Li Shu-fan 李樹芬 / Phoon Seck-wah 潘錫華 / Li Shu-pui 李樹培
1932-1933*  / Li Tsoo-yiu 李祖佑 / Phoon Seck-wah 潘錫華 / S.C. Chan
1932-1933* / Yeo Kok-cheang 楊國璋 / Chau Wai-cheung 周懷璋 / K.Y. Li
1933-1934 / Chau Wai-cheung 周懷璋 / Ma Luk 馬祿臣 / Martha Hoabing
1934-1935 / Phoon Seck-wah 潘錫華 / F.I. Tseung / K.D. Ling
1935-1936 / Ip Kam-wa 葉錦華 / Chau Wai-cheung 周懷璋 / T.C. Wong
1936-1937 / Chau Sik-nin 周錫年 / Li Shu-pui 李樹培 / Chan Ping-in
1937-1939 / Li Shu-pui 李樹培 / T.K. Lien / Edward Wickham Jueyow Sun 孫潤焜
1939-1940 / Chau Wai-cheung 周懷璋 / Edward Wickham Jueyow Sun 孫潤焜 / T. P. Wu
1940-1941 / Edward Wickham Jueyow Sun 孫潤焜 / T.P. Wu / H.C. Chan
1941 / Edward Wickham Jueyow Sun 孫潤焜 / Lee Hah-liong / H.C. Chan

*Before and after the amalgamation of HKCMA & HK Branch of National Medical Association of China
Source: The Bulletin of the Hongkong Chinese Medical Association (1948)



Abbreviations

A.B.C.F.M. - American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions
C.B. - Companion of the Most Honorable Order of Bath
C.B.E. - Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
Ch.B. - Bachelor of Surgery
C.M. - Master of Surgery
C.M.G. - Companion of the Order of St. Michael and St. George
D.Ch. - Doctor of Surgery
D.D. - Doctor of Divinity
D.D.S. - Doctor of Dental Surgery
D.G.O. - Diploma in Gynecology and Obstetrics
D.L.O. - Diploma in Laryngology and Otology
D.O. - Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine
D.O.M.S. - Diploma in Ophthalmic Medicine and Surgery
D.P.H. - Diploma in Public Health
D.S.C. - Distinguished Service Cross
D.S.O. - Distinguished Service Order
D.T.M. & H. - Diploma in Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Dr.PH. - Doctor of Public Health
F.C.C.P. - Fellow of the College of Chest Physicians (of the United States)
F.H.K.A.M. - Fellow of the Hong Kong Academy of Medicine
F.I.C.S. - Fellow of the International College of Surgeons (Chicago based)
F.R.C.O. - Fellow of the Royal College of Ophthalmologists
F.R.C.S. - Fellow of the Royal College of Surgeons
F.R.F.P.S. - Fellow of the Royal Faculty of Physicians and Surgeons
F.R.I.P.H. - Fellow of the Royal Institute of Public Health
F.R.M.C.S. - Fellow of the Royal Medical and Chirurgical Society
F.R.S.M. - Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine
F.R.S.T.M.H. - Fellow of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
HKBMA - British Medcial Association Hong Kong and China Branch
HKCMA – Hong Kong Chinese Medical Association
HKCMC - Hong Kong College of Medicine for Chinese (1887-1915), renamed Hong Kong College of Medicine in 1907
HKU - Hong Kong University
HKVDC – Hong Kong Volunteer Defense Corps.
K.H.P. - Honorary Physician to the King
LL.D. - Doctor of Laws
L.M. - Licentiate in Midwifery
LMS – London Missionary Society
L.M.S. - Licentiate in Medicine and Surgery
L.R.C.P. - Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians
L.R.C.P. & S.I. – Licentiate of the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons of Ireland
L.S.A. - Licentiate of the Society of Apothecaries
M.A. - Master of Arts
M.B. - Bachelor of Medicine
M.B., B.S. - Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery
M.B., C.M. - Bachelor of Medicine and Master of Surgery
M.D. - Doctor of Medicine
M.O.S.U.K. - Member of the Ophthalmological Society of the United Kingdom
M.R.C.P. - Member of the Royal College of Physicians
M.R.C.P.I. - Member of the Royal College of Physicians, Ireland
M.R.C.S. - Member of the Royal College of Surgeons
O.B.E. - Officer of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire
R.A.M.C. - the British Royal Army Medical Corps.

- TO BE COMPLETED -



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