Monday, December 17, 2012 | By: rudi butt

William Quincey Article Suplemental Notes

Updated August 7, 2016


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Appendix I
Policemen recruited from Scotland and England (1872-1873)

Scotch Contingent (45 men enlisted in 1872)
2nd IP
James Dodds [died in office]
3rd IP
J.B. Cameron
W.T. Gair
John Mathieson
Donald Thomson
James Youngson [died in office]
Act. IP of Nuisances
Alexander Mackie
Donald Bremmer
John Fleming
J.C. Grant
John Lindsay
Benjamin Miller [invalided]
John Swanston
Wm. Templeton [dismissed]
1st PC
William Abernethy [dismissed]
James Balfour [contract expired]
Alexander Bow [contract expired]
Alexander Cumming [died in office]
James Duncan [died in office]
John Gordon
John Harper
James Frazer [contract expired]
William Gauld
George Hay [absconded]*
Adam Hogg
Robert Jardine [dismissed]
James Maver [contract expired]
Wm. McClinton [dismissed]
P. McConville [contract expired]
R. McDonald [contract expired]
P. McFarlane [contract expired]
Andrew MacKay [dismissed]
John McKay [dismissed]
Neil McKay [contract expired]
Angus McKenzie [died in office]
David Makie [dismissed]
John Meldrum [dismissed]
George Milne [absconded]
Peter Mitchell [died in office]
Robert Porter [invalided]
George Rae
George Ross [contract expired]
T. Sangster
Charles Smith [absconded]
Robert Taylor [1]
London Contingent (20 men enlisted in 1973)
Acting IP of Nuisances
John Cleaver
Joseph Corcoran
Joseph Flym
George Hennessy
Nicholas Perry
Act. Sgt
William Stanton
1st PC
William Baker
James Harvey [dismissed]
Thomas Blake [dismissed]
George Briarly [dismissed]
John Costello [dismissed]
Frederick Hooper [dismissed]
Peter Jones
John McKay
James Penn
George Saddler [invalided]
Jacob Smith [absconded]
Maurice Sullivan [resigned]
W.A. Washbrook [purchased discharge]
Septimus Westron
Source: Annual Police Report, Statistics for the Blue Book, and Returns of Crime for the Year 1876
Additional notes: Remarks written in parentheses show what had become of them. Typically, a contract was for a period of five years. Reasons for dismissal included drunkenness, misconduct, neglect of duty, etc. Those became invalided were sent home on government expenses.
An observation: The Scottish contingent fared better in discipline (only 31% of the PC were dismissed or had absconded) than its London counterpart (43%). What a record!

Appendix II
Comparative Return of Selected Offenses Coming Under the Notice of the Police (1880-1889)

Robbery w/ Violence fr the Person
Burglary or Larceny fr House at Night
Assault w/ Intent to Rob


Context Reference
Population ('000)*
Strength of HKPF (men)
source: Police Reports, Blue Books, Report of the Colonial Surgeon
* figures from 1882 through 1889 were government estimations

Appendix III
Plague Medal Recipients (Updated on November 7, 2013, partial list of 110 servicemen and 26 civilians)

Abbey, S., private, SLI
Battle, W., private, SLI
Baugh, J., private, SLI
Bennion, G., private, SLI
Bloxham, H., private, SLI
Booth, J., private, SLI
Brookfeild, H., private, SLI
Briggs, H., private, SLI
Briggs, M. private, SLI
Brien, M., corporal, SLI
Brown, G., private, SLI
Bryant, E., private, SLI
Buchanan, G.H.L., captain, SLI
Bunker J., private, SLI
Chandler, G., private, SLI
Childs, H., private, SLI
Claymore, W., private, SLI
Corfield, J., private, SLI
Campbell, J., private, SLI
Carre, R.T., lieutenant, class 2, SLI
Cherrington, J., private, SLI
Colley, W., private, SLI
Coventry, H., Sapper, RE
Duncan, A., private, SLI
Dunn, W.J., private, SLI
Edwards, S., [ ], SLI
Edgington, J., private, SLI
Evans, W., pivate, SLI
Farrer, F., private, SLI
Fletcher, S., private, SLI
Fletcher, J., private, SLI
Foktry, J., private, SLI
Forbes, J.G., captain, SLI
Gardiner, G., private, SLI
Gilbert, A.E., private, SLI
Gillier, N., sergeant, SLI
Goodall, M., private, SLI
Graham, J, corporal, RE
Grant, John Edward, [ ], SLI
Griffiths, E., private, SLI
Hatton, F., private, SLI
Hanlon, L., private, SLI
Heacock, F., private, SLI
Holland, C., private, SLI
Hyde, E., private, SLI
Heath, R., private, SLI
Howell, E., captain, SLI
Humphreys, W., private, SLI
Jarritt, J., private, SLI
Jones, A., private, SLI
Jones, G., corporal, SLI
Jones, T., private, SLI
Jones, W., private, SLI
Jordan, R.A.A.Y., lieutenant, SLI
Kenna, J., private, SLI
Knibb, [ ], lance corporal, SLI
Kynaston, J., private, SLI
Lyle, A.F.A., major, SLI
Langley, W., private, SLI
Leech, J., private, SLI
Lishman William, seaman, RN
Lloyd, J., private, SLI
Luard, E.B., lieutenant, SLI
Makin, John Rickard, warrant officer class 2, RAMC
McLaughlin, W., major, SLI
Merchant, W., private, SLI
Mooney, T., private, SLI
Malpas, E., private, SLI
Monk, G., corporal, SLI
Morgan, G., private, SLI
Morris, J., private, SLI
Oakley, C., private, SLI
Oldfield, J., private, SLI
Palmer, A., private, SLI
Pearce, J., private, SLI
Penny, Herbert L., surgeon, RN
Philpott, W., private, SLI
Pugh, A., private, SLI
Parker, J., private, SLI
Phillip, R., corporal, SLI
Price, J., private, SLI
Read, W., private, SLI
Roden, J., sergeant (later), SLI
Robinson, J.G., private, SLI
Robinson, W.J., lieutenant, class 2, SLI
Russell, J., private, SLI
Smith, A., private, SLI
Smith, C., private, SLI
Smith, H., private, SLI
Smith, W.H.E., CQM sergeant, RGA, Hong Kong – Singapore Battalion
Spencer, W., private, SLI
Strick, J.A., lieutenant, SLI
Taplin, G., private, SLI
Talbot, H., private, SLI
Taylor, J., private, SLI
Thomas, G., lance sergeant, SLI
Vale, J., private, SLI
Vesey, George Colthurst, captain, SLI
Ward, A., private, SLI
Welman, H.B., captain, SLI
Williams, J., private, SLI
Whitney, J., private, SLI
Whittaker, J., private, SLI
Walker, J., sergeant, SLI
Warby, N. private, SLI
Warwick, [ ], [ ], RE
Weale, J., private, SLI
Wilson, J., private, SLI
Wilson, J.C., lieutenant, SLI
Wooley, T., corporal, SLI
Abbreviations: RAMC – Royal Army Medical Corps. RGA – Royal Garrison Artillery. RE – Royal Engineers. RN – Royal Navy. SLI – Shropshires Light Infantry.
Adamson, Charles Murray, assistant, Shewan & Co.; lieutenant, Hong Kong Volunteer Corps.
Ayres, Philip Burnard Chenery, M.D., Colonial Surgeon
Baker, William, acting inspector, HKPF
Benning, Frederick Harold, clerk, Jardine, Matheson & Co.*
Bowring, Charles Calvert, government auditor
Frank Browne, Government Analyst
Crowe, [ ], government chemist
Duncan, Chesney, editor, Hongkong Telegraph
Gidley, Thomas Henry, acting police sergeant
Hanson, J.W., inspector, HKPF
Hennessy, George, inspector, HKPF
Higgin, Elizabeth Frances, nursing sister, Alice Memorial Hospital
Ireland, Emma Gertrude, nursing sister, Alice Memorial Hospital
Kemp, George, inspector, HKPF
Lammert, George Reinhold, auctioneer*
Lowson, James Alfred, M.D., medical officer in charge of epidemic hospital; acting superintendent, Government Civil Hospital
Mackie, Alexander, inspector, HKPF
Mann, A, acting detective inspector, HKPF
Mathieson, John, chief inspector, HKPF
McDonald, C., constable, HKPF
McDonald, J., constable, HKPF
Moffat, Galbraith, inspector, HKPF*
Nagaharo, [s.n.], M.D., Japanese medical personnel*
Phelps, G., sergeant, HKPF
Pollock, Henry, barrister, senior unofficial member, Legislative and Executive Councils
Potts, George Hutton, clerk, Russell & Co.*
Quincey, William W., detective inspector, HKPF
*Further confirmation required

Selected bibliography: AngloBoerWar › Non-Boer War › Hong Kong Plague Medal 1894 [online]. Artfact › Hong Kong Plague Medal [online]. Besly, Edward, For Those in Peril: Civil Decorations and Lifesaving Awards at the National Museum & Galleries of Wales, Cardiff, Wales: National Museum & Galleries of Wales, 2004, p.22. Bickley, Gillian, Hong Kong Invaded: A '97 Nightmare, Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2001, p.244. British, Russian and World Order, Decorations & Medals [online]. Christie's › Hong Kong plague 1894 (Private L. Hanlon, S.L.I.) [online]. Denis Grant's Genealogy Page [online]. Dix Noonan Webb Ltd. [online]. The Dr. Arthur B. King Collection (auction) [online]. Dreweatts Bloomsbury Auctions › Coins & Medals [online]. Emedals › Hong Kong Plague Medal, 1894 [online]. Find A Grave [online]. The Fitzwilliam Museum › Hong Kong Plague Medal, awarded to Pvt. G. Taplin 1894 [online]. Friends of Joseph Carey Merrick [online]. The Hong Kong Government Gazette, March 10, 1894, #86; July 25, 1902, #464. Hong Kong Police › Off Beat › Police Museum Assumes New Look [online]. The King's Shropshire Light Infantry › Hong Kong Plague Medal 1894 [online]. KSLI Memorabilia: 1939-2008 [online]. Lim, Patricia, Forgotten Souls: A Social History of the Hong Kong Cemetery, Hong Kong: Hong - Kong University Press, 2011, pp.130-131, pp.445-447. Lucas, Edward Verrall, Who's Who in the Far East, 1906-7. Science Museum Group › Collections Online – Objects › Hong Kong plague medal, England, 1894 [online]. Shropshire Regimental Museum › The Hong Kong Plague, 1894-95 [online]. Tees Valley Museums [online]. Thame Local History › Philip Burnard Chenery Ayres [online]. Trademe / Rare Hong Kong 1894 Plague medal [online]. Ulric of England [online]. Wade, Ella N., Medical Medals in the Collection of the College of Physicians of Philadelphia [online]. Wellington Auctions [online]. Wills, Walter H., The Anglo-African Who's Who and Biographical Sketch-Book, London: George Routledge & Sons, Ltd., p.19. Wright, Arnold (Ed.), The Twentieth Century Impressions of Hong Kong, Shanghai, and Other Treaty Ports of China, London: Lloyd's Greater Britain Publishing Co., Ltd., 1908.

Appendix IV
Additional Quincey News Clippings

1883 photograph of Marquis Tseng Chi-tse (Zeng Jize) 曾紀澤, eldest son of Tsang Kwok-fan (Zeng Guofan) 曾國藩.
The Hong Kong Daily Press, November 21, 1883
Some of our readers may, perhaps, remember a case which attracted some attention in this colony over two years ago. The facts, briefly stated, were about as follow. Thirteen Chinamen were arrested by the police on a charge of murder within Chinese territory, there having been a combined armed attack made in which three or four men were killed, and the thirteen men arrested, being said to have been concerned in the matter, were wanted by the Chinese authorities. The case came before the Police Court, and an order was given for the detention of the prisoners pending the orders of H.E. The Governor. After they had been in custody some time, Sir John Pope Hennessy ordered them to be discharged, and the men were set at liberty. We are informed that the Chinese authorities were not satisfied about the matter, and they gave instructions to their ambassador, the Marquis Tseng, who has agitated the matter before the Home Authorities. Dispatches in reference to the case have now come out from home, the effect of which has been that the police have been ordered to re-arrest the men. Inspector Quincey was entrusted with the task of capturing the men, which was not easy, as they had scattered widely, and it was necessary to secure the lot by a grand coup, or the remainder would take alarm from the arrest of a few, and get out of the way. By a stratagem the men available charged with implication in the alleged murder were induced to meet together, and were arrested at once, and on Monday they were taken before Capt. Thomsett on a charge of an offense against the laws of China on Chinese territory. We believe the Viceroy of Canton has applied for the rendition of the men. Though thirteen was again the number arrested, they are not all the same men who were in custody before; nine are the same, but four are not, but they are alleged to have been implicated in the offense. The Crown Solicitor will conduct the prosecution and the case was remanded on account of his inability to attend. We believe that Mr. Ewens will represent the Chinese Government.
The Straits Times, December 21, 1883
The trade in women, says the Hong Kong Daily Press, between this place and Singapore seems a long way from being suppressed. Yesterday a woman was brought before the sitting Magistrate charged with detaining three other women, 16, 17, and 27 years of age respectively, for the purpose of emigration. A tailor went to visit a friend living in Graham-street, and heard some women carrying in the next house. He then went into the verandah, and heard some women giving instructions to people inside to say that they were going to join their husbands at Singapore – probably referring to their application for emigration tickets at the Harbor Office. He believe it was a case of kidnapping and gave information to the police. Inspector Quincey went to the house and found the three women in a room on the top floor. The women alleged that they had been induced to come to this colony from Canton with a man who promised to find them work. They were taken to the house where the police found them, and had been kept there, and not allowed to go out. They were to leave for Singapore to be prostitutes, and they were unwilling to go, but wanted to return to Canton. Inspector Quincey said these cases were very common, and he believed that not more than one case in a hundred could be detected. He hope, if His Worship did not convict, he would send the three women to the Registrar-General's Office. The case was remanded in order that it might be considered by both Magistrates.
The Daily Express, November 2, 1888, The Daily Press
Inspector Hennessy has been appointed Inspector of Vehicles, vice Inspector Quincey, resigned.
Hong Kong Telegraph, July 5, 1889
How Coolies are Crimped: A Decoy Detective The ways of the coolie-crimps are devious and crafty, but for once they have been out-witted, and the result will probably cause a thorough alternation in the present emigration system. On the 26th ult., by the orders of General Gordon, the acting Superintendent of Police, Inspector Quincey picked out two smart Chinese constables. One he instructed to dress like a country coolie, with rough, ragged clothes, bristly scalp, and an air of mingled starvation and astonishment. He was to go to Canton, loaf about in likely quarters, and if approached by any coolie recruiters, go with them in the role of an emigrant. The other lukong, also disguised, was to spy on him from afar, and see that he did not come to harm, a very necessary proceeding, for if either of them had been detected they would possibly have been half-killed by the [ ] Hong Kong criminals living in exile in Canton. Both played their parts admirably. The “coolie” – P.C. Lam Tung – lounged around the dirty streets and foul opium divans for several days, and the bait was taken on Wednesday last. A man approached him as he was walking along the Wharf and told him he was simply wasting himself in China – Singapore was the place, plenty of light genteel [tin]-mining to be done, no previous knowledge required, salary $19.50 and upwards. P.C. Lam Tung was entranced at the prospect, and that evening saw him and his new friend on board the steamer Pasig. Hong Kong was reached in due time, but the two stayed on board, at the suggestion of this recruiter, until the rest had cleared out. They only left about two two o'clock yesterday morning, therefore, and in a few minutes met a boarding-house keeper whose den is in Wingsing Street. He seemed to be expecting the recruiter, and at once invited the two to go to his house. If Lam Tung had followed instructions he would have refused, and only gone if, and after, force was used. But he thought he would see the play right through, and he die. He was taken to the coolie-depot – chu chai kun, or pigsty, as the Chinese themselves call it. There he was put in a cock-loft on the first floor, and the door locked. After some hours he started to see if he could get out, and made various excuses, such as wanting to buy a jacket, etc. The keeper of the place refused to let him out, telling him that he could find him a jacket, and so on. About nino'clock he took the captive on board the steamer Bormida, which was to sail at twelve. Several of the fokis from the barracoon accompanied them, and saw that Lam did not run away. When on board he was ordered to sit down in a corner and not move, and a ticket was handed to him. It was a regular ticket, signed by Mr. Gorham, one of the licensed emigration agents, and purporting to belong to Au Teoy, 27, miner, belonging to some far off district, and another name, English, but illegible, was “chopped” on the top. The crimp told him to be careful of the ticket, and take it to a certain foreign man topside. He went on the upper deck, and there, although his ticket did not bear the Government stamp, some European took it and did something to it. He asked no questions. Then Lam Tung went down again, and the crimp promptly took the ticket off him saying he would return it when the steamer started. Till then, Lam Tung was to sit down and not even squeak. Just about this time Lam Tung's confederate, who had followed him from Canton to the barracoon, and thence to the ship, cmae along and arrested the coolie-shop keeper and the crimp. The former was charged with unlawfully detaining the constable-coolie both in his house and on board the ship, but no charge was entered against the crimp, as the man came willingly with him from Canton. The case was before Mr. Wodehouse to-day, Acting Inspector Butlin prosecuting. After hearing the evidences of the two men, hearing just what we have set down, His Worship [ ] inclined to dismissed the case, on the grounds that the coolie-house keeper had committed no offense. The Inspector strenuously opposed this, and at length the case was adjourned till Wednesday next, that the Crown Solicitor might take the matter up. Bail was fixed at $200. We hear that one result of this exposé will [ ] to cause an official investigation into the way in which the emigration agents and emigration officers work. Unless H.E. The Governor finds the weather too hot, he could yet do better than immediately appoint a Commission to publicly report on it. We [ ] that “startling” as was the information he recently admitted receiving, he would have his eyes opened a good deal wider.
Daily Advertiser (Singapore), March 7, 1893
A.F. Alves, the absconding Treasury accountant, was arrested at 2a.m. On Feb. 24th, in an empty house in Kowloon, and is now awaiting his trial in Victoria Gaol. He had never been very far away from the colony, but the story of his wanderings as a hunted man is a remarkable one, and not without a certain pathos. He left the colony on Tuesday, the 31st of Jan. In the forenoon of that day he took a passage by one of the launches plying between Hong Kong and Yaumati. From Yaumati he at once fled over the hills to the village of Sai Kung, near Junk Bay. Here he took passage by a native boat with the purpose of making his way to Swatow. The passage was a very rough and cold one and the fugitive could not continue it further than Ping Hoi. At this place he stayed three days and then took another boat and made his way back to Sai Kung. Being afraid apparently to remain here for any length of time, he proceeded by passage boat to the village of Chek Kung. It was while here that the police first got information as to his whereabouts, and Inspector Quincey was sent to arrest him. The miserable man had been sleeping out at night among the hills in the neighborhood, coming at daytime to the village to get food. As soon as Alves heard of the approach of the police he made for the hills again, bribing the people not to divulge his hiding-place. After more wandering about from place to place, with the police on his track, it seems that some possibility of a way of escape had been opened up to him by means of a passage on a steamer from Hong Kong, for the next stage in his flight was towards the Colony. It is stated that he expected to get a passage to Manila by the Don Juan. He got a boat to land him on an uninhabited island not far from Hong Kong and arranged with the best people that they should come back for him after dark. The boat, however, did not turn up and he had to spend the night in his cold and desolate place of refuge alone. On Wednesday morning he hailed a passing junk and persuaded the people to take him over to the mainland. From the point at which he was landed he walked to Kowloon. Here he was arrested, after a search of the premises by Inspector Martin and two police sergeants. The hunt was over, it seemed as if it was with a feeling of relief that the fugitive realized the stern fact. He broke down and burst into tears. A pitiable object he looked. He wore the clothes of a coolie and his feet were bare. He had cut off his mustache; and his face, which had apparently been for some days unaquainted with water, had hair on it of several days' growth. To make his disguise as complete as possible he had adopted a false queue. He told the Inspector pathetically that he had been thoroughly miserable during his twenty-four days' wanderings, and his appearance bore amply testimony to the fact. In the Police Court the prisoner was charged with embezzling the sum of $10,000, the moneys of the Crown, and also with falsifying certain books kept by him in the Colonial Treasury. The prisoner was apparently unable to plead. This was taken as a plea of "not guilt," and the case was remanded.
The Brisbane Courier, August 27, 1895
Yesterday (says the “Hong Kong Mail” of 20th July) the Hong Kong police received information of a very startling nature. It is said that upwards of twenty Americans have established a secret society, with Hong Kong for its center, for the express object of wrecking the newly-formed Hawaiian Government. The Americans, who arrived in the colony a few weeks ago, are said to be forming their plot as an act of revenge against the present officials, who caused the dethronement of the Hawaiian Queen some time ago. It is, of course, impossible to say as yet whether there is any truth in the story, but it came from a fairly reliable source, and immediately it was communicated to Hon. Commander W.C.H. Hastings, the acting Captain Superintendent. Inspector Stanton, Inspector Quincey, and Sergeant Holt were deputed to make inquiries. So far very little information has been elicited, but it is reported that two or three days ago the constituents for the manufacture of nitroglycerin were bought in the colony by an American, and that three or four members of the alleged secret society have gone to a village about twenty miles from Canton to make dynamite bombs, which are to be used it is said, to blow up the Hawaiian Government Buildings. The police officers are busily engaged in sifting the affairs, and, if there exists any grounds for these alarming statements, the plot will be quickly brought to light.

Appendix V
The China Contingent Attended the International Plague conference 1911

Dr. Wu Lien-teh 伍連德
BC, M.A, MD (Cantab.); Chief Medical Officer of the Manchurian Plague Prevention Service 東三省防疫全權總醫官; Vice Director of Imperial Army Medical College, Tientsin 天津陸軍軍醫學堂副監督.
Dr. Ch'uan Shao-ching 全紹卿
official of the Fourth Civil Rank, designated assistant sub-prefect; professor of Medicine, Therapeutics, and Medical Jurisprudence, Imperial Medical College, and medical officer, Pei-Yang Hospital, Tientsin.
Dr. Fang Chin 方擎
MD (Chiba); professor of Bacteriology, Imperial Army Medical College, Tientsin.
Dr. Y. S. Wang 王若宣doctor in charge of Sanitary Hospital; assistant director, Anti-plague Bureau, Mukden; expectant district magistrate.
Dr. R. A. P. HillBriton, MB (Cantab.), DPH (Lond.); Captain, Royal Army Medical Corps; lecturer in the Union Medical College, Peking.
Dr. William Harold Graham Aspland 韓濟京
Briton, MD, FRCS; professor in the Union Medical College, and Peking University; medical superintendent of Anglican Hospital, Peking.
Dr. Dugald Christie 司督閣
Briton, FRCP, FRCS (Edin.); director of the Mukden Hospital and medical adviser to the Manchurian Government.
Dr. Arthur Stanley 斯坦利
Briton, MD, BS (Lond.), DPH; health officer of the Shanghai Municipal Council.
Dr. Paul B. Haffkine 哈夫金
Russian; director of the Russian Plague Hospital, Harbin.
Dr. Woo Wai U 吳為雨surgeon, Imperial Guard; Deputy from the Ministry of Interior, Peking 中國民政部.
Dr. Joseph Chabaneix 夏本禮 also 夏巴内
(b.1870-d.1913); surgeon, French Army; professor at the Imperial School of Medicine, Tientsin; attached to the Sanitary Department of the Province of Chihli (major).
Dr. C. W. Wongassistant professor, Imperial Army Medical College, Tientsin; deputy from Fengtien Province.
L.S. Wang 王麟書pharmaceutical adviser to the Government of Fengtien Probince; deputy from Fengtien Province 奉天民政部主事.
Dr. Chung Mu-sheng 鐘穆生taotai designated; director of the Government Hospital, Kirin; deputy from Kirin Province.
Dr. Wang Hsing-an 王興安deputy from Heilungkiang Province.
Dr. B.Y. Wong 王培元
deputy of the Imperial Chinese Red Cross Society and the Chinese Public Isolated Hospital, Shanghai.
Dr. Peter Quincey 王文昭resident physician, Shanghai 上海自治會醫官.

Appendix VI
Excepts of essays written by John Wong-Quincey cited by the Hawera & Normandy Star. These essays were previously published in The Chinese Review.

Hawera & Normanby Star, Vol. LXVIII, August 8, 1914, p.9
In Another's Place: If You Were a Chinaman
To counteract to some extent the attitude of bigotry and prejudice exhibited almost daily in the West against everything Chinese, a new Review has been founded in London (says Public Opinion). It is the Chinese Review, published monthly at one shilling, and the first tow issues contain several notable articles which deserve careful attention. The Review is edited by two Chinamen, one of whom, Mr. J. Wong-Quincey, invites English readers to put themselves in the place of the Chinese for a moment and consider matters like this, for example:
If The Tables were Turned
"In the year of grace, 1912, the honorable and high-minded promoters of the Anglo-Japanese Exhibition decided to add a touch of Chinese color to the great display at Shepherd's Bush. A scheme was forthwith proposed, and widely advertised in the press, to install a typical opium den within the exhibition grounds, and attempts were made to hire Chinese sailors from the East End to play the part of opium sots and exhibit to the West, in realistic details, all the disgusting particulars associated with opium smoking.
"Suppose the tables be turned. Imagine the promoters of a Chinese exhibition proposing to represent Great Britain by setting up the model of a low-class public house, and the engaging Britishers to act the role of besotted drunkards. In place of the mild protest raised by the Chinese students Great Britain would probably have sent a fleet of warships to demand reparation for the national insult.
"In the whole range of China's past and present is there nothing worthy of notice and representation except an opium den? One looks in vain in Western newspapers for reports of progress and of incidents illustrating the higher and better traits of Chinese character; but the ravages of a White Wolf or the details of a political murder are immediately boomed with an energy worthy of a better cause. And the dismal pessimist, ignoring all the wonderful progress made in China during the last fifty years in the face of untold difficulties, chants his funereal lay with a gusto and vehemence which tempt us to concluded that he must be paid to do it."
One of the articles in the June number, from the pen of the editor, discusses the attitude of the Chinese towards Christianity and the profound and organic difference in the modes of thoughts which characterizes the Eat and the West. The East limits its ideals to the attainment of the practical good; the West sets out to fathom the unfathomable.
“In the China of more recent times the same vivid contrast is discernible. One looks in vain for a Thomas Carlyle or a William Wordsworth; nor can the ecstasies of the modern mystic find any affinity in Chinese thought. There is no unspeakable agony, no mortal strife between faith and unbelief; and it is highly doubtful whether such states of mind can be made so much as intelligible to the Eastern understanding.
Imperturbable Contentment
"The Chinese of to-day pursues his even course with equanimity as he has done for ages past, and is less perturbed by questions of faith and delicate casuistry than the Sage (Confucius) who had determined for him, irrevocable it may seem, his summum bonum. His needs are few and his ambitions attainable with ordinary effort.'To see God' and 'to be persecuted falsely and yet rejoice' are beatitudes after which he entertains no aspiration. If he is literary he may hope for honor, for State employment and for power to rule. For the rest he is content to live in easy affluence without undue luxury of extravagance.
“The lower classes are permeated with the same atmosphere of imperturbable contentment. In spite of economic pressure, of the many uncertainties of life in a frequently disorganized state, living cheap and easy; and the Chinese peasant is no less remarkable for his simplicity of life as for his philosophical calm in adversity, and for the elasticity with which he recovers from disaster.
"There probably has been never been any antagonism in China against Christianity itself. Missionaries have occasionally suffered, not for their religon but rather from a misunderstanding of their real purpose and mission, and from acts of indiscretion committed by the missionaries themselves. Although there is no indigenous faith in China that could offer any opposition to the Christian appeal, the Chinese temperament and outlook upon life constitute a serious obstacle to the vital and rapid spread of Christianity.
Christian Mission Work
"It can serve no honest purpose to minimize the excellent work achieved by missionary endeavor. The result so far obtained can call forth nothing but admiration. Statistics of church membership, however, are obviously misleading in that they do not offer any guide as to the inward intensity of belief in the case of professed converts. There is no question of sincerity; but it is open to doubt whether the Chinese nature lends itself easily to that mystical abandon and absolute resignation to the supernatural which is the sine qua non of a living faith in Christ.
"The average Chinese is too wide awake, too tantalizingly calm and self-controlled, too easily satisfied with small mercies and with the pursuit of the concrete good to be emotionally led away from the steady paths of terra firma to soar with uncertain wings.
"Of Chinese admiration for the moral tenets and practice of Christianity there is no lack; but it is only a tribute to 'what is excellent and lovely, to what is good.' To the Chinese mind unconvincing as unnecessary; and the restless attitude of spirit involved in the the Christian injunction to 'watch and pray' is somewhat irksome and foreign to the easy-going Chinese temperament. All this being granted, the Chinese are exceptionally alert to anything which is calculated to help in the building up of sound character.
"Parents and guardians who cannot be suspecting of personal learning towards Christianity are most anxious to send their young charges to educational institutions which are avowedly and aggressively Christian. This openness of the Chinese mind has profoundly influenced the policy of Christian missions during the last few decades. Incalculable good has been and is being done by these institutions in the matter of spreading among the educated ranks of China Western ideals which have been inspired directly or otherwise by the Christian [illegible]. It is questionable, however, whether these efforts have been successful in making many real and permanent converts to Christianity.
Their View of Happiness
"The method employed by the Chinese for the pursuit of happiness has given rise to a somewhat different kind of civilization, in many ways inferior to that of the West, and act possessing peculiar merits of its own not shared by any other system of culture. Being more moderate in their aim, a simpler mode of life has been evolved, and the Chinese have thus been protected from those violent reactions which have in the past destroyed nations and empires.
"Where there are few luxuries there is no inordinate craving for wealth, and in the China of to-day one is spared the sight of those harrowing contrasts between the super-rich and the destitute poor. Observations made by impartial students tend to show that the East stands higher than the West in the standard or degree of subjective happiness and contentment. The absence of emotional warmth in the Chinese temperament is counter-balanced by a fineness of mental balance and vision, and by an exceptional strength of moral purpose.
Moral Virtues
"These Chinese, too, are unsurpassed in the possession of the sense of justice. Their patience under suffering is based on a dogged optimism which goes to the root of things. No amount of blustering aggressiveness will convince them that might is right, and there is little probability that they are beginning to learn that lesson from the West. Tyrants in China have known to their cost just how far it is safe to trifle with popular feeling. History tells us that in the majority of cases they went a little too far, and further relates how one and all of them were becomingly sent to oblivious destruction, proving the intensity of the Chinese sense of justice. When that sense is outraged there is never any lack of willing martyrs who will face death with cheerfulness and courage.
"Family and sexual relationships in China, though less warm and emotional, are on a far more satisfactory basis than they are in the West. The loyalty displayed between kith and kin had deservedly earned the praise of foreign admirers, though that kind of family loyalty may be pushed too far to the detriment of larger interests. If the Chinese were as staunch in their support of the State as they are of the family, a new era would have dawned for them.
A Note of Optimism
"The awakening of the East is in effect more profound and momentous than the meaning that popular term can ever hope to convey to the average man. China would have been satisfied if left alone; Confucius would have continued to answer her needs. But East and West have met, and Confucianism has been found wanting. Not only in China but in Japan also there is ample evidence of a deep spiritual agitation, an overhauling and a questioning of ancient faiths and ideals, more than half a hope that there may be some system of Truth, some new belief capable of meeting the requirements of modern conditions. If Christianity is true it must be universal. The fact that the Chinese temperament has been modified by Confucianism only proves that it is modifiable, and that in turn it may impart new tones to a faith which has hitherto confined its operations to the West."

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